Jesus to AD 500

Timeline created by kchal
  • 33

    The Resurrection of Jesus Christ

  • 33

    Pentecost

    Pentecost is the birth of the Church. On this day, Jesus sent the Holy Spirit to Mary and the
    Apostles, inspiring them to preach the Good News. Thousands were baptized.
  • 33

    The Apostles Spread the Gospel

    The Apostles James and John were among the leaders of these groups, as were Paul, Barnabas, Titus, and Timothy. They traveled extensively, gathering followers of Jesus into
    small communities, which were the beginnings of local churches.
  • 33

    St. Stephen is Martyred

    A martyr is one who is killed for bearing witness to the Faith.
  • 34

    The Conversion of St. Paul

  • 42

    St. John travels to Ephesus with the Blessed Mother

    John 19:25-27 tells of how, from the Cross, Jesus charged St. John with the care of His mother.
  • 44

    St. James the Apostle is martyred; his body is secretly buried in Spain.

    Christians stole his body and brought it in a boat to Spain, to a place that would become known as Santiago (St. James) de Compostela (field of stars).
  • 44

    St. Paul begins missionary journeys to Galatia, Greece, Syria, and other places. Council of Jerusalem.

    This council affirms that the New Covenant in Christ means that Christians are not bound
    by Mosaic Law and that Jesus sends the Holy Spirit to Jew and Gentile alike.
  • 64

    Persecution of Christians begins under Roman emperor Nero,

  • 70

    The church is destroyed

  • 99

    Romans burn the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

    Didache written All the writings that will become part of the New Testament have been written by this date.
  • Period: 100 to 500

    AD 100-500

  • 250

    Persecution under roman emperor Decius

    Decius required all to worship the gods of the state, or be tortured and killed.
  • 251

    Council of Carthage.

    This council allowed people who lapsed in their faith during the persecution to be brought back into the Church after a period of penance.
  • 303

    Persecution under Roman emperor Diocletian.

    Diocletian ordered the destruction of all Christian churches, imprisonment of bishops and priests, and the execution of all who refused to participate in the public worship of pagan
    gods.
  • 313

    Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan.

    This edict granted religious toleration to Christians and unleashed the spread of Christianity.
  • 325

    Council of Nicaea.

    This council, called by Emperor Constantine, set forth the Nicene Creed and affirmed that Jesus and the Father are consubstantial – of the same substance.
  • 330

    Emperor Constantine divides the Roman Empire into East and West.

    The West was centered in Rome, and the East was centered in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey).
  • 330

    Construction of the first St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

  • 354

    Birth of St. Augustine

  • 360

    Books begin to replace scrolls

  • 382

    Pope Damasus asks St. Jerome to translate the Gospels into Latin.

  • 397

    The Councils of Hippo and Carthage determine which books will become part of the New Testament.

  • 405

    St Jerome complete his translation of the Old Testament

  • 410

    The Visigoths destroy the city of Rome.

  • 410

    St. Augustine begins writing The City of God.

  • 431

    Council of Ephesus.

    This council condemned a heresy that said that Jesus was Hypostatic Union, and the council declared that the Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God (Theotokos).
  • 432

    St. Patrick sets out to spread the Gospel in Ireland

  • 451

    Council of Chalcedon.

    This council affirmed that Christ is fully human and fully divine (the hypostatic union).
  • 476

    The Western Roman Empire collapses.

  • 480

    Birth of St. Benedict

  • 496

    Clovis, the King of the Franks, coverts to Catholicism.

  • Period: 500 to 1000

    Ad 500-1000

  • 507

    Clovis' army drives Visigoths out of France

  • 527

    Justinian I becomes emperor of the Easter Roman Empire

  • 529

    St. Benedict founds the first monastery

  • 529

    St. Benedict founds his first monastery.

  • 537

    Construction of Hagia Sophia begins in Constantinople

  • 590

    St. Gregory the Great becomes pope

  • 596

    Pope St. Gregory the Great sends St. Augustine of Canterbury to England to evangelize the Anglo-Saxons.

  • 597

    St. Augustine baptizes the King of Kent

  • 632

    Death of Mohammad

    Mohammad, whom Muslims called the Prophet Mohammad, is the founder of Islam.
  • 637

    Muslims attack Constantinople

  • 638

    Muslims capture Jerusalem

  • 698

    Muslims take Carthage

    End of Eastern Roman rule in North Africa.
  • 711

    Muslims invade and occupy Spain

  • 716

    St. Boniface leaves England to evangelize Germania

  • 732

    France halts Muslim invasion

  • 754

    With St. Boniface’s help, the pope allies with the kings of the Franks

  • 793

    Vikings attack England

  • 800

    Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo the III

    Eastern Christians in Constantinople did not approve of Charlemagne's coronation, and the new title bestowed by the pope caused further division between East and West.
  • 800

    Gunpowder invented

  • 885

    Vikings attack Paris

  • 997

    Muslims occupy Santiago de Compostela in Spain, burial place of St. James the apostle

  • 1000

    Muslims control two thirds of the ancient Christian world

  • 1054

    The Great Schism

  • 1073

    St. Gregory VII elected pope

  • 1073

    Pope St. Gregory VII excommunicates the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV

  • 1088

    First universities founded

  • 1094

    The Byzantine emperor in Constantinople asks the West for aid against Muslim armies

  • 1095

    Pope Urban II calls for a Crusade, and Christians temporarily capture Jerusalem

  • 1144

    First Gothic cathedral completed

  • 1147

    Second and Third Crusades

  • 1192

    Second and Third Crusades

  • 1204

    Crusaders from the Fourth Crusade sack Constantinople

  • 1209

    Franciscan Order is founded by St. Francis of Assisi

  • 1216

    Dominican Order founded by St. Dominic

  • 1229

    The Inquisition is founded

  • 1265

    St. Thomas Aquinas write the Summa Theologica

  • 1274

    St. Thomas Aquinas write the Summa Theologica

  • 1300

    The Renaissance begins

  • 1347

    Bubonic plague arrives in Europe.

  • 1377

    St. Catherine of Siena convinces the pope to return the papacy to Rome

  • 1386

    St. Catherine of Siena cares for the sick and buries the dead when the plague strikes Siena.

  • 1440

    Printing Press invented

  • 1453

    Muslims conquer Constantinople and tun Hagia Sophia into a mosque

  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus reaches the Americas

  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus sails for North America

  • 1513

    Ponce de Leon of Spain founds St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine, named for St. Augustine of Hippo, was the first European settlement in what is now the United States.

  • 1517

    Martin Luther presents the 95 Theses In this document, Luther presented what he saw as abusive practices in the Catholic Church.

  • 1520

    Luther denies the authority of the pope to interpret Scripture

  • 1521

    Luther is excommunicated

  • 1522

    Luther translates the Bible into German Luther removed seven Old Testament books: Tobit, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch.

    He also tried to change the New Testament by moving the letter of James, the letter to the Hebrews, the letters of John, and the book of Revelation into an appendix.
  • 1526

    Franciscan missionaries arrive in what is now Florida

  • 1534

    St. Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

  • 1534

    King Henry VIII of England breaks England from the Catholic Church after the pope refuses to allow him a divorce

  • 1535

    St. Thomas More is executed by Henry VIII

  • 1536

    Henry VIII dissolves all monasteries and convents in England and ireland

  • 1541

    First Franciscan explorations in what is now California

  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    The Council of Trent

  • 1549

    Jesuit missionaries arrive in the Far East

  • Period: 1562 to 1582

    St. Teresa of Avila founds Discalced Carmelite convents throughout Spain

  • The King James Bible becomes the Bible of the Church of England

  • St. Peter Claver arrives in Colombia

  • The Mayflower sets sail from England to North America

    Separatists wishing to further “purify” the Church of England of Catholic influence leave for North America on the Mayflower. They hoped their colony would be a “city on a hill”--an example to the Church of England of the need for further reform. In the New World, many would be persecuted for their faith. Most of the first British colonies in North America legally exclude Catholics, Quakers, and others from participation in public life.
  • The Colony of Maryland is established

    Maryland will be the first colony to allow religious freedom for Catholics. Jesuit priests there will offer the first Holy Mass in the British colonies.
  • England overthrows its Catholic king and bans any future Catholic monarchs

  • Maryland outlaws the public practice of Catholicism in the colony

  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

  • British colonies in North America declare their independence

  • The French Revolution begins

    One of the goals of the revolution was to turn France into a completely secular nation and rid it of Christianity. Church property was seized, and many priests and religious were persecuted, imprisoned, and killed.
  • The US Constitution prevents religious tests for national office

  • The First Amendment protects free religious exercise in the US and prevents national government from establishing a religion.

    States were free to keep their established churches, and many did into the early 1800s.
  • Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto

  • Period: to

    Ecumencial Council of the Vatican (known as Vatican I)

  • Bolshevik party formed in Russia

  • World War I begins

  • Three children at Fatima, Portugal, are granted visions of the Virgin Mary

    Our Lady asked the children to pray the Rosary every day to stop the spread of Russia’s errors and for world peace. She asked that Russia be consecrated to her Immaculate Heart.
  • Mexico outlaws Catholicism

  • Soviet Union is formed

    Lenin was its first leader; Stalin took power two years after Lenin’s death
  • The first Catholic bishops in China are ordained

  • Servant of God Dorothy Day converts to Catholicism

  • Bl. Miguel Pro is killed by the Mexican government

  • Hitler beomes chancellor of Germany; first Nazi concentration camp is opened

  • Day founds the Catholic Worker newspaper

  • Word War II begins

  • Communist governments begin persecutions and mass murder across Europe and Asia

  • St. Maximilian Kolbe is killed by the Nazis at Auschwitz

  • Pope St. John XXIII calls the Church council that will become known as Vatican II

  • Period: to

    Ecumenical Council of the Vatican

    now known as Vatican II
  • The US Supreme Court rules that the Constitution protects the right ot an abortion

  • Pope St. John Paul II survives an assassination attempt ordered by the KGB (the Soviet intelligence agency)

  • The Soviet Union begins to fall

    The end of the Cold War, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the end of communism in Europe would come in 1991