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Growth & Development Timeline Project

  • Prenatal Period

    Prenatal Period
    The most dramatic and extensive transformation of the entire life span occurs before birth. Prenatal development is often divided into three main periods.
  • Germinal Period: 1st 2 Weeks

    Germinal Period: 1st 2 Weeks
    The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and beginning of cell differentiation. The most dangerous journey is the first 10 days after conception, the organism does not increase in size because it is not yet nourished by the mother. However, the number of cells increases rapidly as the organism prepares for implantation, which occurs successfully about one-third of the time.
  • Germinal Period Fact

    At least 60% of all developing organisms fail to grow or implant properly and thus do not survive the germinal period. Most of these organisms are grossly abnormal.
  • Embryonic period: 3rd-8th Week.

    Embryonic period: 3rd-8th Week.
    The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week of conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs develop.
    Formless mass cells becomes a being—not yet recognizably human but worthy of a new name, embryo. Embryo refers to the developing human from day 14 to day 56.
  • Embryonic Period: 3rd Week.

    Embryonic Period: 3rd Week.
    22 days after conception a thin line called the primitive streak appears down the middle of the embryo, becoming the neural tube and eventually developing into the central nervous system, the brain, and the spinal column.
  • Embryonic Period 4th Week

    Embryonic Period 4th Week
    The head begins to take shape, as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth start to form. Also, the heart becomes to pulsate. The embryo is 1/8th inch (3mm) long, but the head has already taken shape.
  • Embryonic Period: 5th Week.

    Embryonic Period: 5th Week.
    Buds that will become the arms and legs emerge. The upper arms and then forearms, palms, and webbed fingers appear. Legs, feet, and webbed toes, in that order, are apparent a few days later. Beginning of the skeletal structure. The embryo has grown twice the size it was at 4 weeks.
  • Embryonic Period: 7th & 8th Week.

    Embryonic Period: 7th & 8th Week.
    7th week – the organism is somewhat less than an inch (2 ½ cm) long. 8th week – the one inch long organism is recognizable as a human fetus.
  • Embryonic Period: End of week 8.

    Embryonic Period: End of week 8.
    At the end of the 8th week after conception (56 days), the embryo weighs just one-thirteenth of an ounce (1 gram) and is about 1 inch (2 ½ cm long). All basic body parts and organs are present (except sex organs) of a human. It moves frequently about 150 times per hour.
  • Embryonic Period 9th & 10th Week.

    Embryonic Period 9th & 10th Week.
    Then, 52 and 54 days after conception, the fingers and toes separate.
  • Embryonic Period Fact:

    About 20% of embryos are aborted spontaneously, most often because of chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Fetal Period: 9th week until birth.

    Fetal Period: 9th week until birth.
    The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds (more than 3,000 grams) and organs become more mature, gradually able to function on their own. The organism is called a fetus from the 9th week after conception until birth. The fetal period involves dramatic changes.
  • The Third Month.

    The Third Month.
    Some neurological sex differences begin. The 3 month old fetus weighs approx. 3 ounces (87 grams) and is about 3 inches long. Prenatal growth is rapid, especially in body weight.
  • Middle Three Months: 4th, 5th, & 6th.

    Middle Three Months: 4th, 5th, & 6th.
  • The Final Three Months.

    The Final Three Months.
    Age of viability – The age about 22 weeks after conception at which a fetus may survive outside of the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available. The critical difference between life and death between a fragile preterm baby and a newborn is maturation of the neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems.
  • The Final Three Months

    The Final Three Months
    In the last three months of prenatal life, the lungs begin to expand and contract, exercising muscles involved in breathing by using the amniotic fluid as a substitute for air. The valves of the heart start to go through the final maturation as do the arteries and veins throughout the body. The fetus gains about 4½ lbs in the third trimester, increasing to almost 7½ lbs at birth.
  • The Final Three Months.

    The Final Three Months.
    By full term, human brain growth is so extensive that the cortex form several folds in order to fit into the skull.
    The relationship between mother and child intensifies during the final three months. Auditory communication from mother to child begins at the 28th week and improves each week as fetal hearing becomes more acute. The fetus startles and kicks at loud noise, becomes used to the mother’s heartbeat and voice, and is comforted by rhythmic music, if the mother rocks or sings.
  • Birth

    Birth
    About 38 weeks (266 days) after conception, the fetal brain signals the release of hormones, oxytocin, which prepares the fetal brain for delivery and starts labor. The average baby is born after 12 hours of active labor and for first births and 7 hours for subsequent births.
  • I was born!

    I was born!
    The best day on the face of the earth! I was born at St, Joseph's Hospital in Detroit. 7lbs 8oz. The high was 50 degrees that day and the moon was a waning crescent. I am an Aries, stubborn ram I am. Man, I could have been an April Fool's Baby!
  • Birth: The first few minutes.

    Birth: The first few minutes.
    Newborns usually breathe and cry on their own. Between spontaneous cries, the first breaths of air bring oxygen to the lungs, as the infants color changes from bluish to pinkish. The eyes open wide; the tiny fingers grab; toes retract. Mucous in the baby’s throat is removed and the umbilical cord is cut from the placenta leaving the “belly button.”
  • The Newborn

    The Newborn
    We are responsive social creatures, even in the first hours of life. We listen, stare, cry, stop crying, and cuddle. We have many reflexes that are tested when we are born. Three of which aid in survival.
    1. Breathing reflex: Maintains oxygen supply. (The breathing reflex.) hiccups & sneezing. 2. Reflexes that maintain body temperature. (shivering, crying, tucking our legs close to our bodies. 3. Reflexes for feeding (sucking , rooting, swallowing, spitting up, swallowing).
  • My First Month Milestones.

    My First Month Milestones.
    I was able to make jerky, quivering movements and bring my hands near my face. I even tightened my fists as if I was a little boxer. I could move my head from side to side while lying on my stomach. I could focus on objects 8-12 inches away. I prefered my parents faces over any other shapes. I prefered black-and-white or high-contrast patterns. My hearing was improving and I could recognize some sounds, including my parents' voices.
  • The First Two Years: Biosocial

    The First Two Years: Biosocial
    Nutrition GuidelinesBody Size: Infants double their birthweight by the fourth month and triple it by age 1. Physical growth then slows but is still rapid. By 24 months, most children weight almost 28lbs and have grown from 20in at birth to 34in tall. This means 2-year-olds are half their adult weight, four times heavier than they were at birth. If nutrition is temporarily inadequate, the body stops growing, not the brain. This is called head-sparing.
  • First Two Years: Biososcial Development

    Head-sparing - A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition.
  • First Two Years: Biosocial

    First Two Years: Biosocial
    I spent much of my time sleeping as an infant about 15-17 hours a day. My mom said that she loved it because she could study for her classes. She always said that I slept in my dad arms. I also loved to sleep with both of them in the bed over my crib. Throughout childhood, regular and ample sleep coorelates with normal brain maturation, learning, emotional regulation, academic success and psychological adjustment.
  • The First Two Years: Biosocial

    The First Two Years: Biosocial
    Brain Development:
    I had a big head when I was born. That is because it had to be big enough to hold my brain, which at birth is already 25% of its adult weight. By age two the brain is almost 75% of adult brain weight.
  • The First Two Years: Biosocial

    The First Two Years: Biosocial
    The Five Senses
    Ever sense functions at birth. Newborns have open eyes; sensitive ears; and responsive noses, tongues, and skin. In my first year, I use these senses to sort and clasify everything I experience. I spent a good part of my first year looking around, listening, smelling, touching, seeing, and tasting everything that I came into contact with. One day I took a lemon slice out of my dads hand.
  • The First Two Years: Biosocial

    The First Two Years: Biosocial
    Motor Skills:
    Once I was able to lift my midsection, I began to experiement with the act of crawling. I learned to crawl when I was 7 months old. I also started to grasp objects. I always had a baby blanket I would clench and take with me everywhere.
  • The First Two Years: Cognitive Development

    The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
    Piaget realized that infants are smart and active learners, adapting to experience. . Adaptation according to Piaget, is the core of intelligence. Piaget described four distinct periods of cognitive development. The first begins at birth and ends at 24 months. Piaget called it sensorimotor intelligence. This is subdivided into six stages.
  • Sensorimotor Intelligence: Primary Circular Reactions

     Sensorimotor Intelligence: Primary Circular Reactions
    The first two stages involve the infant's responses to its own body. Stage 1: (Birth to 1 month) Relexes: Sucking, grasping, staring, listening, Stage 2: (1 to 4 months) The first acquired adaptations: accomodation and coordination of reflexes. This is where I would grab my bottle to suck it.
  • Sensorimotor Intelligence: Secondary Circular Reactions

     Sensorimotor Intelligence: Secondary Circular Reactions
    The next to stages involve the infant's responses to objects and people. Stage 3 (4 to 8 months) Making interesting sights last: Responding to people and objects; like clapping my hands when mommy says "patty-cake" I remember my mom saying, "peel-a-boo" and I would get excited.
    Stage 4 (8-12 months) New adaptation and anticipation: More deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects.
  • Sensorimotor Intelligence: Tertiary Reactions

    Sensorimotor Intelligence: Tertiary Reactions
    The last two stages are the most creative, first with actions and then with ideas. Stage 5 (12-18 months) New means through active experimentation: "little scientist" Stage 6 (18-24 months) New means through mental combinations: Considering before doing provides the child with new ways of achieving a goal without resorting to trial-and-error. Ex: before flusing remembering the toilet overflowed the last time.
  • At the end of my third month. I can...

    At the end of my third month. I can...
    Raise head and chest when lying on stomach, support my upper body with my arms when lying on stomach, stretch legs out and kick when lying on stomach or back, push down on legs when my feet are placed on a firm surface, open and shut hands, bring hands to my mouth, grab and shake hand toys, follow moving objects with mu eyes, watch muy parents faces closely, recognize familiar objects and people at a distance,
    start using hands and eyes in coordination, begin to babble and to imitate sounds,
  • At the end of my 7th month I can...

    At the end of my 7th month I can...
    Roll over both ways (stomach to back and back to stomach), sit up, reach for object with hand, transfer objects from one hand to the other, support my whole weight on legs when held upright, develop full-color vision and mature distance vision, use my voice to express joy and displeasure, respond to my own name, babble (ba-ba-ba-ba), distinguish my parents emotions by tone of voice, explore objects with my hands and mouth, struggle to get objects that are out of reach, I loved mirrors.
  • At 1 years old I can...

    At 1 years old I can...
    Sit without help, crawl, pull myself up to stand, walk holding onto furniture,say “dada” and “mama, try to imitate words, respond to “no” and simple verbal requests, use simple gestures, such as shaking head “no” and waving bye-bye, explore objects in many ways (shaking, banging, throwing, dropping), begin to use objects correcly like sipping from my cup.
  • The First Two Years: Cognitive Development: Language

    The First Two Years: Cognitive Development: Language
    The timing of language acquisition varies; the most advanced 10% of 2-year-olds speak more than 550 words, and the least advanced 10% speak fewer than 100 words. Vocabulary begins to build slowly until the infant knows approx 50 words, then naming explosion begins. Toward the end of the 2nd year toddlers put words together showing that they understand the rudiments of grammer.
  • The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development: Emotions

    The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development: Emotions
    Within the first two years, infants progress from reactive pain and pleasure to complex patterns of social awareness. At first newborns seem to have only two simple emotions, distress and contentment, expressed by crying or looking peaceful. By the second half of the first year, anger and fear are evident, especially if a stranger is encountered.
  • The First Two Years: Cognitive Development: Emotions

    The First Two Years: Cognitive Development: Emotions
    In the second year, as infants become self-aware, they express emotions connected to themselves--including pride, shame, embarrasement, and guilt--and to other people. Maturation makes these emotions possible, but context and learning affect the timeing, frequency, and intensity of their expression. From birth on, temperamental differences are apparent, some infants are easier than others.
  • Psychoanalytical Theory

    Psychoanalytical Theory
    Psychoanalytic Theory stresses a mother's responses to an infant's need for food and elimination (Freud) or for security and independence (Erikson). Behaviorism also stresses caregiving--especially as parents reinforce the behaviors they want their baby to learn or as they thoughtlessly teach unwanted behaviors.
  • Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud

    Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud
  • Psychoanalytic Theory: Erikson

    Psychoanalytic Theory: Erikson
    Erikson's Pyschosocial Stages Erik Erikson proposed a theory of development that continues throughout the life span. His theory states that there are universal life stages and that a specific psychosocial dilemma occurs at each phase of development. These problems (crises) must be resolved before an individual can move to the next developmental stage
  • Erikson's: Trust vs. Mistrust

    Erikson's: Trust vs. Mistrust
    Stage: Infancy (birth to 18 months)
    Important Event: Feeding
    Outcome: Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers proviade reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
    By looking at old photos of me as an infant I could see how much I trusted my parents. They truly took care of my every need.
  • The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development: Attachment

    The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development: Attachment
    Attachment is a lasting emotional bond between people. It begins before birth and solidifies by age 1, and influences relationships throughout life. Infants show their attachment though proximity-seeking and through contact-maintaining.
  • My 2nd Birthday! At this time I can,,,

    My 2nd Birthday! At this time I can,,,
    Walk alone, pull toys behind me while walking, begin to run, kick a ball, climb on and off furniture without help, walk up and down stairs while holding the rail, Scribble with crayons, build a tower with blocks, recognize names of familiar people, objects and body parts, ay several single words (by 15 to 18 months), use simple phrases (by 18 to 24 months), use two- to four-word sentences, immitate behaviors, show independece, Begin to play make believe.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial Development

    Early Childhood: Biosocial Development
    Between the ages of 2 and 6, I grew taller and thinner. Nutrition and oral health are serious concerns around these years, Unfortunately, my parents were to be busy working than being concerned with my nutrition. The first time I went to the Dentist I had 4 cavities! I wasn't much of a picky eater, but I really really loved snicker bars like everyday! In my culture you are forced to eat all of your meal or else it is considered rude.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Brain Development

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Brain Development
    My brain is continuously maturing during my early childhood years with increased myelination occuring in several crucial areas. Increased myelination speads up actions and reactions. The prefrontal cortex enables balance between action and inhibition, allowing me to think before I act and to stop one action in order to begin another, When I was young, I would never share my toys with my cousins. My prefrontal cortex hadn't matured. I always pointed at everything saying it was mine.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Brain

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Brain
    My limbic system matured around the ages of 2-6. This consists of the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. This part of the brain aids in my emotional expression and control. Some children who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorders or ADHD, this is the area of the brain affected.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language at 2 years.

    I started to ask questions, my vocabulary increased to 100-2,000 words
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive Development

    Cognition develops rapidly in children from age 2 to 6. Children's active search for understanding was first recognized by Piaget (Preoperational Intelligence). Piaget thought that egocentrism limits understanding, as yound children only center one thing at a time, focusing on appearance. Thinking is magical and animistic.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Vygotsky: Social Learning

    Early Childhood: Cognitive: Vygotsky: Social Learning
    Yound children instead of being egocentric, are effected by wishes and emotions of others. He believed that every aspect of childrens cognitive development is embedded in a social context. Children learn because of their mentors: They present challenges, encourage motivation, offer assistance (guided participation) I remember always copying my friend when she would dance and that is how I learned,
  • Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt

    Stage: Preschool (3.-5years) Important Events:Exploration, Outcome:Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children to tend to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 3

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 3
    At three years old my motor skills were improving. I was able to throw and kick a ball. Not well, or in a particular direction though. I was able to ride my cabbage patch bigwheel with no difficulty. I coppied shapes, but they really weren't clear ones.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language at 3 years.

    Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language at 3 years.
    At this age my vocabular increased 1,000-5,000 words. I also asked many "why" questions. Many found me to be very annoying more particularly my big sister. I enjoyed rhyming and using nonsense words. I also started to ask direct questions.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 4

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 4
    By the time I was four years old I was able to catch a ball, hop on either foot, feed myself, dress myself (can't make promises that I even matched or wasn't backwards) brush my teeth, use scissors to cut, and pour juice without spilling.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language at age 4.

    My vocabulary increased 3,000-10,00o words. My sentence length is 5-20 words. Questions I would ask: Peak of "Why"; many "How?" and "When?" questions.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor skills at age 5.

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor skills at age 5.
    When I was 5 I could skip, clap, bang, and sing in rhythm, climb and jump over things, tie a bow, wash my face, brush my hair, copy more difficult shapes and letters.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language at age 5.

    At this point I can recall parts of a story, use future tense, I begin to tell longer stories, and I can tell you my name and address.
  • Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 6.

    Early Childhood: Biosocial: Motor Skills at age 6.
    When I was six years old I was in first grade. I remember learning to tie my shoes, and experimenting with summersaults and cartwheels. I never did learn how to do a cartwheel. I also remember Mrs. Kuhn my teacher having us write mini novels in cursive handwriting. Till this day my cursive is terrible.
  • Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language

    Early Childhood: Cognitive: Language
    My parents we born in Europe and movedI to America for a better life for my sister and I. I learned to speak Serbian at a very young age. Although, my sister speaks it more fluently. My parents only spoke Serbian as we were being raised and I learned Serbian annd English simultaneously growing up. These are my parents.
  • Early Childhood: Psychosocial

    During this time in my life I learned indirectly about what emotional regulation was. I would get very angry and would explode and throw tantrums, but as I matured and grew older the tantrum episodes lessened.
  • Early Childhood: Psychosocial: Play

    Early Childhood: Psychosocial: Play
    Mildred Parten (1932) distinguished 5 kinds of play, each more interactive than the previous one. 1. Solitary Play-A child plays alone, unaware of others nearby. 2. Onlooker Play-Child watches others play. 3. Parallel-Kids play with similar toys in similar ways,. 4. Associative Play- Kids intereact observing one another and sharing. 5. Cooperative Play- Kinds play together, creating dramas or taking turns.
  • Middle Childhood Biosocial

    Middle Childhood Biosocial
    Ages (6-11) Growth is slow & steady. Self-care is easy, brushing their new adult teeth to getting dressed. Making their own lunch to walking to school. Muscles become stronger. Good nutrution is important. Girls may experience menarche, Fine and gross motor skills mature, Learns to tell time and understands past present and future. Learns cause and effect relationships. Socialization with peers becomes important. Molars erupt at 6 years.
  • Middle Childhood: Biosocial

    Middle Childhood: Biosocial
    Improved medical care - immunizations has reduced death dramatically. Oral care has improved, regular dental check-ups and fluoride added to water. Good brushing habits are forming. Childrens habits are influenced by peers and adults. Childhood habits protect adult heatlh.
  • Middle Childhood: Biosocial

    I remember when I was in first grade all I wanted was to go out for recess. I had just learned how to jump rope and me and my friends learned how to do double-dutch. I was addicted and only 3 other girls could do it. We were a little popular group at the time. We never got tired. We also played a lot of hide-and-go-seek. I remember it like it was yesterday.
  • Middle Childhood: Biosocial

    Middle Childhood: Biosocial
    Brain development continues, enhancing every aspect of development, reaction time and automization advance allowing faster and better coordination of many parts of the brain. I remember I did a lot of crossword puzzles during this time in my life.
  • Middle Childhood: Biosocial: Special Needs

    Middle Childhood: Biosocial: Special Needs
    Some children develop special needs. They suffer from ADHD, Bipolar disorder, learning disabilities, autism and special education services may be provided to them.
  • Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development

    Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development
    Learning is rapid in childhood, some children beat their elders in chess, play music that adults pay to hear, publish poems, and win trophies. According to Piaget, middle childhood is the time of concrete operational thought, when egocentrism diminishes and logical thinking begins.
  • Middle Childhood: Concrete Operational

    Middle Childhood: Concrete Operational
    The child is able to classify, order, and sort facts. The child moves from prelogical thought to solving concrete problems through logic.
  • Middle Childhood: Cognitive: Learning

    Middle Childhood: Cognitive: Learning
    Children continue to learn language rapidly during the school years, They become more flexible, more logical, and knowledgeable, figuring out meanings of new words and grasping metaphors, jokes, and compound words. Many use informal speech with communicating with friends. They learn whatever vocabulary they are taught and they succeed at pragmatics. Millions become proficient in a second language.
  • Middle Childhood: Cognitive: Teaching & Learning

    Middle Childhood: Cognitive: Teaching & Learning
    Reading is a complex mix of skills, and children's skill of reading depends on brain maturation, education, and culture. Math learning depends heavily on direct instruction and repeated practice, which mean that some children advance more quickly than others.
  • Middle Childhood: Erikson

    Middle Childhood: Erikson
    Industry vs. Inferiority - The task is to develop social, physical, and school skills. If successful they will have an ability to learn and work. If unsuccessful sense of inferiority; the child will have difficulty learning and working.
  • Middle Chiildhood: Psychosocial: Moral Development

    Middle Chiildhood: Psychosocial: Moral Development
    Lawrence Kohlberg deals with mo.ral development. It is a complicated process involving the acceptance of values and rules of society in a way that shapes behavior. Moral development is classified in a series of levels and behaviors. Level 3 is the stage these children are in. It involves living up to what is expected by individuals close to you. Being good is important and is interpreted is having good motives and showing concern for others,
  • Middle Childhood: Psychosocial

    Income affects family function. Poor children are at greater risk for emotional and behavioral problems because the stress of poverty hinders effective parenting. Instability and conflict are harmful.
  • Middle Childhood: Psychosocial

    Middle Childhood: Psychosocial
    Parents influence child development. Families serve five crucial functions: to supply basic necessities, to encourage learning, to develop self-respect, to nurture friendships, and to provide harmony and stability. The most common family structure worldwide is the nuclear family.
  • Middle Childhood: Psychosocial: Peer Group

    Peers are crucual for social development during middle childhood. Each cohort of children has a culture of childhood, passed down from slightly older children. Close friends are helpful during these years. Popular children may be cooperative and easy to get along with or competitibe or aggressive. Rejected children may be neglected, Bullying is common among school-age children and has long term consequences.
  • Adolescence: Developmental Milestones

    Adolescence: Developmental Milestones
    Girls' growth spurt during adolescence begins earlier than boys (may begin as early as 10 for girls). Boys catch up around 14 and continue to grow. Girls finish growth around 15, boys around 17. Secondary sex characteristics develop.
  • Adolescent Physical Development

    Adolescent Physical Development
    Puberty is the maturational, hormonal, growth process that occurs when reproductive organs begin to function. Body mass increases to adult size, Sebaceous and sweat glands become active, Body hair distribution occurs, Increase in height, weight, breast development, and pelvic girth occurs in girls. Voice deepens in boys. Careful brushing and care of the teeth are important, and many adolescents need to wear braces. Sleep patterns include the tendency to stay up late; 8hrs of sleep is recommended
  • Adolescent: Nutrition

    Adolescent: Nutrition
    Teaching about the food guide pyramid is important. Adolescents typically eat whenever they have a break in activities. Calcium, Zinc, Iron, folic acid, and protein are especially important nutritional needs. They tend to snack on empty calories, and body image is very important.
  • Adolescence: Biosocial: Transformations of Puperty

    Adolescence: Biosocial: Transformations of Puperty
    The brain develops unevenly, with the limb ic system ahead of the prefrontal cortex and the reward centers more active than the cautionary areas. As a result adolescents are fast and fearless, qualities that may cause trouble or may benefit sociaty,
  • Adolescence: Cognitive Development

    Adolescence: Cognitive Development
    Brain maturation, intense conversations, additional years of schooling, moral challenges, and increased independence all occur between ages 11 and 18. The combination propels impressive cognitive growth, from egocentrism to abstract logic.
  • Adolescent Thinking: Formal Operational Thought

    Adolescent Thinking: Formal Operational Thought
    Adolescents move past concrete thinking and consider abstractions. Piaget described the shift as formal operational thought including "assumptions that have no necessary relation to reality" One way is to compare curricula in primary school and high school. Ex: Science - Young students water plants; adolescents test H2O in the lab.
  • Adolescent: Cognitive

    Adolescent: Cognitive
    During puberty, young people center many of their thoughts on themselves, because maturation of the brain heightens self-consciousness. They think intensely about themselves and about what others think of them. This is called adolescent egocentrism. Adolescents regard themselves as unique, special, and much more socially significant than they actually are.
  • Adolescence: Intuitive Emotional Thought

    Adolescence: Intuitive Emotional Thought
    Adolescents can use hypothetical-deductive reasoning does not necessarily mean they do use it. They find it much easier and to forget about logic and follow impulses. Intuitive Thought-Begins with a belief, assumption, or rule rather than logic. It is quick and powerful "feels right" Analytic Thought-Formal logical hypothetical-deductive thinking. Rational analysis of factors whose interactions must be calculated.
  • Adolescent: Teaching and Learning

    Adolescent: Teaching and Learning
    Adolescents use technology (internet) more than people of any other age group. They reap many educational benefits. There are hazards as well such as gaming addictions, and cyberbullying.
  • Adolescent: Psychosocial Development

    Psychosocial development during adolescence is often understood as a search for a consistent understanding of oneself Self-expression and self- become incresingly important.
  • Adolescence: Psychosocial: Erikson

    Adolescence: Psychosocial: Erikson
    Identity vs. Role Confusion: Complexities of finding one's own identity being the primary task of adolescence. Crisis is resolved with identity achievement; after adolescents reconsider the goals and values of their parents and culture. They accept and discard others, discerning their unique self.
  • Adolescence: Psychosocial: Peer Pressure

    Adolescence: Psychosocial: Peer Pressure
    Peer pressure can be beneficial or harmful. depending on what friends you are associated with. I remember when I was in school. I had a lot of people doing drugs and drinking around me. I never tried it and didn't care for it. To be honest I thought those who did do it looked radiculous. So I am happy I stayed away.
  • Adolescence: Sadness & Anger

    Adolescence: Sadness & Anger
    Almost all adolescence become self-concious and self-critical. A few become chronically depressed. When I was in Junior High I was on the track team. I suffered from eating disorders for two years. I was anorexic, but really didn't have an excuse as to why. I thought if I didn't eat I would slim down and run faster. I snapped out of it one day. I still never understood why I did it in the first place.
  • Emerging Adulthood

    Emerging Adulthood
    The period of life between the ages of 18 and 25. Emerging adulthood is now widely thought of as a seperate developmental stage. Most people are strong, healthy, and attractive. Emerging adults satisfy their strong sexual appetites with relationships that last for months and years. I was 17 years old when I met Jeremy. We have been through our ups and downs, he is my soulmate.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial

    Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial
    All my life I have always been careful with the relationships I have been in. I was aware of the sexually transmitted diseases currently going around. I never gave into the peer pressure of having sex. I had very strong beliefs. Many guys at that young of an age were immature and only wanted one thing. It wasn't a relationship that is for sure. Woman love to be "in love"
  • Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial

    Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial
    Well-being increases during this time of life, also so does the rate of psychological disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are apparent at every period of life, but some of the social contexts that are more prevalent during this time tend to worsen these problems. In late 2004. Jeremy and I had broken up after being together for 2 years. I was devestated and fell into a depression. I wouldn't have gotten through it without my best friend Biljana at my side.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial

    Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial
    I have always had weight issues and never was content with how I l felt in my own body. I worked out a lot and did eat well, but being young, in college, going out with your friends. It was hard to discipline myself to stick to exercising regularly and eating a well-balanced meal. It's like I did what felt good at the time not thinking about consequences that could occur later on in my life.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive

    Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive
    Morality, faith, and ethics ma also progress into adulthood. Growing up my parents never went to church. Although, they are Eastern Orthodox. I am not strict in my religion, but I do love the culture with which I was raised. I love our customs as well. This is the inside of the Serbian Orthodox Church we attend from time to time.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive

    Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive
    Postformal thought was a fifth stage that followed Piagets 4th, characterized by problem finding not just problem solving, wherin a person is more open to ideas and less concerned with absolute right and wrong.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Higher Education

    Emerging Adulthood: Higher Education
    In June of 2007. I graduated Baker College with my Associates Degree in Applied Science & Nursing. Never in my life did I think I would become a nurse, go to nursing school and graduate summa cum laude at the top of my class. This is probably one of the most memorable and most rewarding days of my life.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial

    Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial
    Many emerging adults use social networking and matchmaking sites on the internet to expand and deepen their friendship circles and mating options. I actually met my finace on a dating website back in 2002. I do not regret signing up! :)
  • Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Erikson

    Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Erikson
    Intimacy vs. Isolation - Establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship. Resolution is the ability to love and deeply commit to oneself. Unsuccessful resolution of crisis - self- absorbtion; inability to grow as a person.
  • I got engaged

    I got engaged
    We went to Greek Town for a nice dinner on our anniversary. I just thought it was a random date night. We went to our room. When I walked in their were rose petals everywhere and candles. I turned around and Jeremy was on one knee.
  • Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial:Intimacy

    Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial:Intimacy
    Close friendships typically include some other-sex as well as same-sex friends. Woman still exchange more confidence and physical affection than men do. I am really greatful and appreciative of those I have in my life now. I don't have many friends, but the ones I do have I know they will be in my life for as long as I live.
  • Adulthood

    Adulthood
    Adulthood covers four decades. Ages 25 to 65 Everyone ages. As soon as growth stops, senescense, a gradual physical decline over time, begins. Senescence affects every part of the body, visible and invisible. Here is a pic of my mom and I.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial Development

    Adulthood: Biosocial Development
    Outward signs of senescence are present long before old age arrives.
    first visual in the skin, collagen, the connective tissue of the body, decreases by about 1% per year, hair turns gray & gets thinner, skin becomes drier , “middle-age spread” Excessive weight will impair health, people get shorter,muscles weaken.
  • Aduldhood: Biosocial:

    Aduldhood: Biosocial:
    Each of the 5 senses becomes less acute. The 2 most obvious are: hearing (presbycusis - "aging hearing" Pure tones are lost 1st. Practical measure: Whisper test) & vision (losses in acuity & accommodation (presbyopia).The Aging Brain,the brain slows down with age. Reaction time is slower & complex memory tasks become impossible. Neurons fire more slowly & messages sent from the axon of one neuron are not picked up as quickly by the dendrites of another neuron. Multitasking is more difficult.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Sexual Repoductive

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Sexual Repoductive
    Both males & females encounter analogous changes in their sexual reproductive systems. Sexual responses gradually become slower with age & reproduction is less likely. Attitude is more important than biology in evaluating the impact of these changes. Women usually reach menopause between the ages of 42 & 58, average age is 51. At menopause, both ovulation & menstruation stop; several hormones, especially estrogen, progesterone, & testosterone are also reduced. • Menopause is dated one ye
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Menopause

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Menopause
    The first symptom of menopause is usually shorter menstrual cycles. Ovulation here usually occurs early or late in the cycle rather than mid cycle as it did in earlier years. Mood fluctuations are common in this time.The most obvious symptoms of climacteric are hot flashes (feeling hot), hot flushes (suddenly looking hot), and cold sweats (feeling cold and clammy). These symptoms are all caused be vasomotor instability, a temporary disruption in the body’s homeostasis
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Menopause

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Menopause
    Other changes caused by reduced estrogen levels that pose serious heath risks are: 1. Loss of bone calcium, which can lead to osteoporosis. This is more common in small framed we of fat deposits in the arteries, which can lead to coronary heart disease. Dry skin, Loss of breast tissue. About 1 in 3 women in the U.S. have a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) at some point in their lives.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Alcohol

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Alcohol
    Adults who drink alcohol (wine, beer, spirits) in moderation live longer than those who never drink….reason? - Reduction in coronary heart disease. Alcohol increases "good cholesterol" (high-density lipoprotein) which in turn decreases "bad cholesterol" (low-density lipoprotein).
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Estrogen replacement

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Estrogen replacement
    10% of all women going through natural menopause and 90% of all women going through surgically induce menopause receive estrogen replacement therapy. In most cases, the treatment is hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
    Continued use of HRT can have health benefits, but may have some risks as well. The benefits include a reduction in half the incidents of hip fractures as well as the reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease when taken for more than 15 years. HRT can increase risk of cancers.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Health Habits

    Tobacco
    • In all its forms tobacco contains harmful drugs.
    • Nicotine is the most addictive of the drugs contained in tobacco.
    • Fewer people are starting to smoke.
    • Many people quit smoking by late adulthood.
    • Death from lung cancer is down by 20% from 1980 - 1995.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Alcohol

    Large amounts of alcohol may …
    • lead to alcohol abuse/dependence.
    • cause cirrhosis of the liver (kills 14,000 middle-aged adults in the US each year).
    • stress the heart & stomach & destroy brain cells.
    • decrease fertility & increase some forms of cancer (breast cancer).
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Lack of Exercise

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Lack of Exercise
    Adults exercise less as they age. Low exercise rates are blamed on
    • lack of commitment.
    • lack of support in the immediate social context.
    • community’s failure to provide appropriate facilities.
    Activity
    • burns calories.
    • decreases appetite.
    • increases metabolism.
    • reduces serious illness & death.
    Exercise not only improves an adult's physical state, it improves cognitive functioning because of
    improved blood circulation to the brain.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Measures of Health

    Adulthood: Biosocial: Measures of Health
    Better health & mortality rates are characteristic of those who are relatively well-educated, financially secure
    & urban-dwelling.

    There are 4 Measures of Health
    Mortality
    Morbidity
    Disability
    Vitality
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Socioeconomic Status

    People who are relatively well educated, financially secure, & living in or near cities tend to live longer lives &
    have fewer chronic illnesses or disabilities. They feel healthier than the average person of their age, sex & ethnicity. Compared to people in rich nations, those in poor nations experience higher rates of disease, injury, & death.
    Conditions such as lung & breast cancer, which were once more common among the rich than the poor, have
    been called diseases of affluence.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Quality of Life

    Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs): a way of comparing mere survival without vitality to survival with health;
    QALYs indicate how many years of full vitality are lost to a particular physical disease or disability; expressed in
    terms of life expectancy as adjusted for quality of life. A year of life adjusted for its quality or its value.
  • Adulthood: Biosocial: Disability Adjusted Life

    Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs): are the reciprocal of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). DALYs are a
    measure of the impact that disability has on the quality of life. A reduction in QALYs means an increase in DALYs.
  • Adultohood: Cognitive Development

    Adultohood: Cognitive Development
    We get smarter in some ways and dumber in others. Adult cognitive development can be measures by various tests. Spearman contended that there is a single entity, general intelligence, he also called g. g cannot be measured directly, it can be inferred from various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and reasoning. By combining test scores on a diverse mix of items, an IQ scored overall. That score would indicate whether a person was a genius, average, or retarted.
  • Adulthood: Cognitive Intelligence.

    Adulthood: Cognitive Intelligence.
    Longitudinal testing demonstrated that many people advance in intelligence with age. Cross-sequential research provided a more nuance picture, finding that some abilities decrease and others increase throughout adulthood. Factors including challinging work, a stimulating marriage, and good health--protect intelligence and postpone decline.
  • Adulthood: Cognitive: Two Clusters of Intelligence

    Adulthood: Cognitive: Two Clusters of Intelligence
    Fluid Intelligence: is like water, flowing to its own level no matter where it happens to be. Quick and flexible, enabling people to learn anything, even things that are unfamiliar and unconnected to what they already know.
    Crystallized Intelligence: Involves the capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative. Creative thinking is divergent rather than convergent, valuing the unexpected, imaginative, and unusual, rather than standard and conventional answers.
  • Adulthood: Cognitive Intelligence

    Adulthood: Cognitive Intelligence
    Sternberg proposed three fundamental forms of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical. Most adults believe that while their analytic and creative abilities decline with age, their practical intelligence improves as they grow older. Research supports this.
  • Adultohood: Cognitive

    Adultohood: Cognitive
    As we grow older, we select certain aspects of our lives to focus on, optimizing development in those areas and compensating for declines in others. This means, that people become selective experts in whatever intellectual skills they choose to develop, and abilities that are not exercised may fade. I will be honest math is my least favorite where as evidenced-based practice nursing is interesting to me.
  • Adulthood: Cognitive

    Adulthood: Cognitive
    Expertise in adulthood is apparent in the work place. Experienced workers often surpass younger workers because of their ability to specialize and harness their effors, compensating for any deficits that may appear.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial Development: Erikson

    Generativity vs. Stagnation: People in this stage are focused on nurturing or creating things that will outlast them. Feeling useful and contributing to society are important at this stage. Working and participating in the community are just two ways that people forge a sense of purpose during this period of development.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial: Clusters of Personality

    Adulthood: Psychosocial: Clusters of Personality
    Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain stable throughout adulthood. openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial

    Adulthood: Psychosocial
    An ecological niche is a particular lifestyle and social contexts that adults settle into because it is compatible with their individual personality needs and interests. The ages of 30-50 are marked by more stability of personality than other periods of life. However, some new events bring out old personality patterns. Personality trumps experience.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial

    Adulthood: Psychosocial
    Age bounderies in adulthood are fluid. Maslow talked about psysiological needs, safety, love, belonging, success and esteem, and self-actualization, but there is no set schedule, Consciensciousness peeks in middle age; openness and extroversion both decline slightly over the decades of adulthood. Personality traits are affected by genes, early experiences, life events, and geography and culture.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial

    Adulthood: Psychosocial
    Intimacy is a universal need that is met in many ways-through friendship, family bonds, and romantic partnerships. Friends buffer against stress. Throughout life, family financial assistance and emotional encouragement typically flow from older adults to younger ones. Some cultures encourage familism whereas others cultures expect indepedence.
  • My hopes for this year in my life.

    My hopes for this year in my life.
    I hope that when I am this age I am happy. I want to be financially stable at this point in my life with a good career as a nurse practitioner or a nurse anethetist. I want life to be enjoyable and comfortable without having to struggle with finances.
  • Adulthood: Psychosocial: Generativity

    Adulthood: Psychosocial: Generativity
    Adults seek to feel generative, acheiving successful, instrumental--all words used to describe a psychosocial need. This need is met through creative work, caregiving, and employment.
    Employment brings many rewards to adults especially pride and friendship. Changes in employment pattern including job switches, shift work can affect aspects of adult development.
  • Late Adulthood: Biosocial

    Late Adulthood: Biosocial
    Ageism is a common but d-estructive prejudice. The proportion of people over age 65 is increasing, most elders are self-sufficient and independent.
    Young-old - Healthy, vigourous, financially secure older adults (60-75) who are well integrated into lives of their families and communities.
    Old-old - Adults over 75 who suffer from physical, mental, and social deficits.
    Oldest-old - Over 85 dependent on others for everything ie nursing homes or frequent hospital stays.
  • Late Adulthood: Aging and Disease

    Late Adulthood: Aging and Disease
    Many changes are apparent in late adulthood, skin, hair, and body shape that began earlier in adulthood continue in old age. Senses become less acute. Many older people need glasses and have cataracts, glaucoma, or macular degeneration. Hearing also declines.
  • Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Aging and Disease

    Primary aging happens to everyone, reducing organ reserve in body and brain. Particulars differ depending on an individual's past health habits and genes, eventually morbidity, disability, and mortality increase. .
  • Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Theories of Aging

    Wear-and-tear-theory is the most general theory of aging. Just like parts of an automobile , giving out s time and distance add up, the body wears our, part by part, after years of exposure to pollution, radiation, unhealthy foods, drugs, diseases, and other stresses. Organ reserve and repair processes are exhausted as the decades pass.
  • Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Cellular Aging

    Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Cellular Aging
    Another theory that holds that aging begins with molecules and cells, not whole body systems. Cells are damaged by toxins of the environment over time, and minor errors in copying accumulate. A damaged cell might be repaired or destroyed, over time an error catastorpe occurs as a resulting in senescense as well as various cancers.
  • Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Centenarians

    Late Adulthood: Biosocial: Centenarians
    No proof that anyone has lived passed 122 years of age. More people throughout the world are living to age 100. When people reach late adulthood in good health, their attitutes and activities may be crucial in determining the length and quality of life. The long-lived tend to eat a well-balanced diet and exercise daily, both very important. I hope that if I were to live this long that I am healthy so I wouldnt have to suffer or be a burden on anyone in my family to take care of me.
  • Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development: The Brain

    Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development: The Brain
    The speed of brain processing slows down, parts of the brain shrink, and more areas of the brain are activated in other people. Often, the elderly activate more parts of their brain when thinking than younger adults do. Thinking processes become slower and less sharp.
  • Lade Adulthood: Cognitive: Info processing after 65

    Lade Adulthood: Cognitive: Info processing after 65
    Senses become dulled and some stimuli never reach the sensory memory. Interference with sensory signals can usually be overcome, but this takes mental effort and can reduce cognition. Memory declines with age. Long-term memory is difficult to measure. Long-term memory with strong-emotional impact may remain strong.
  • Late Adulthood: Cognitive: Info processing after 65

    Control processes are less effective with age, as retrieval strategies become less efficient. Anxiety may prevent older people from using the strategies they need. Most elderly are not handicapped in daily life by cognitive difficulti
  • Late Adulthood: Diseases that affect the brain.

    Late Adulthood: Diseases that affect the brain.
    Dementia, whether it occurs in late adulthood or earlier, is characterized by cognitive loss--at first minor lapses, then more serious impairment, and then such extreme losses that recognition of even the closest family members may fade, Most common is Alzheimer's and it worsens over time. Genetic factors (ApoE4) contributes to its onset.
  • Late Adulthood: Dementias

    Vascular dementia results from a series of ministrokes (TiA's) that occur when there is an impairment of blood circulation and it destroys portions of brain tissue. Frontal lobe dimentia and Lewy body dimentia are more common with age. The primary impact of parkinsons disease is to reduce muscle control, but it can cause dimentia in the old.
    I lost my grandmother last year to complications of dimentia.
  • Late Adulthood: Cognitive

    Late Adulthood: Cognitive
    Older people become more interested in becoming creative and philisophical. Life review is a personal reflection that many older people undertake, remembering earlier experiences, putting their lives into perspective, and achieving integrity and self-actualization.
  • Late Adulthood: New Cognitive Development

    Late Adulthood: New Cognitive Development
    Wisdom is not the sole domain of the old, nor are all older people wise. Many older people are insightful, creative, and reflective, using their life experience wisely.
  • Late Adulthood: Psychosocial: Erikson

    Integrity versus despair - The final stage of Erikson's developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community. Integrity means the feeling of being whole, not scattered, comfortable with oneself. Ex of integrity achieved: pride & contentment regarding their personal history
  • Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development: Self Theories

    Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development: Self Theories
    Each person varies in almost every measure of performance from day to day, with some days better than others. Some theories of adulthood are called self-theories because they focus on individuals' perceptions of themselves and their ability to meet challenges to their identity. Other theories are called stratification theories because they describe the ways in which societies place people on a particular life path.
  • Late Adulthood: Psychosocial: Activities

    Late Adulthood: Psychosocial: Activities
    Many of those in late adulthood enjoy employment because it can provide social and personal satisfaction as well as needed income. Many elderly welcome retirement. Some elderly people perform volunteer work, and are active politically. These activities enhance the health and well-being and benefit the larger society. There is also an increase in religious activity. Many like to age in place and engage in home improvement and redecorating.
  • Late Adulthood: Psychosocial: Frail Elderly

    Most elderly prefer to maintain their independence, living alone many raise their grandchildren. Most are self-sufficient, but some become frail and need help with ADL's. Care of the elderly is usually undertaken by adult children or spouses. Sometimes it is too taxing to take care of the elderly. There are nursing homes,assisted living, and professional home care available.
  • Late Adulthood: Psychosocial

    A spouse is the most important member. Older adults in long-standing marriages tende to be satisfied with their relationships and to safeguard each other's health. Married elders tend to live longer, happier. amd healthier lives than unmarried ones.
    The death of a spouse is always difficult. Woman are more likely than men to adjust to death of a partner.
  • My 90th Birthday!

    My 90th Birthday!
    It would be my birthday on this day if I were to live to 90 years old according to the life expectancy calculator. I cannot imagine living this long at all.
  • Death and Dying

    Death and Dying
    Thanatology - The study of death and dying, especially of social and emotional aspects. Death has various meaning for various people. Everyone deals with death differently. Older adults are more accepting of death. Religious and cultural customs vary.
  • Death & Dying: Dying and Acceptance

    Death & Dying: Dying and Acceptance
    People who are dying need to be treated with honestly and respect. Emotions may change over time. Some may go through the stages of greiving. Some elderly decide to go into hospice and or palliative care. It keeps the dying person comfortable in all aspects of dying.
  • Death & Dying

    Death & Dying
    Death has been defined when brain waves stop. Many measures can prolong life. The need for a new and precise definition needs to be developed although; professionals and the public do not agree on what that new definition should be. A living will or power of attorney is recommended.
  • Death & Dying: Bereavement

    The death of a loved one arouses powerful emotions in surviving relatives and friends, including anger and shock, sadness and depression. Bereavement is the complicated multifaceted feelings after death of a loved one. Grief - is the deep sorrow people feel at death of another. It is personal. Mourning - is how culture express there bareavement after death.
  • Death & Dying

    Death & Dying
    On Thanksgiving morning I lost someone near and dear to my heart. My godfather passed away. It was quite sudden and I am still quite upset. He was a good man and I learned a lot from him. He will be missed and his legacy will live on in his grandchildren.
  • Death & Dying

    Mourning rituals are cultural or religious expressions that aid survivors and the entire community. Grief may be irrational and complicated, absent or disenfranchised. Most people find the meaning in death that eventually helps them live a fuller life; a feeling of having an ongoing bond with deceased is no longer thought to be pathological.
  • Death & Dying

    Death & Dying
    As I am sure many people wish they can turn back time. A part of me is looking forward to the future, I look forward to spending the rest of my life with the man that I love. I look forward to sharing every aspect of my life with him. The good and the bad. We are each other's rock.
  • The End

    The End
    I hope that you enjoyed my presentation and much as I enjoyed constructing it.