3 ADFirst emerged on the east bank of the lower Rhine River.
481Clovis begins his rule.
732The Charles the Martel defeated the Arabic invasion at Tours (Poitiers).
756King Authari (Arthur) ensured the survival of the Lombards, threatened as they were by both the Byzantines and the Franks.
841Franks defeat Holy Roman Empire.
843Louis the Pious divides the kingdom among his three sons.