100,000 enslaved Africans rose up in revolt against France. From the Toussaint L'ouverture became their leader. Even though he was unfamiliar with miltary tactics, he was a skilled general and diplomat. Eventually the French captured him and sent him to the French Alps where he died. From there Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Toussaint's lieutenant took over. Then, Dessalines declared it an independent country; it was the first black colony to gain independence from Europe.