Enlightenment and Nationalist Revolutions

  • Montesquieu published book, On the Spirit of Laws

    Montesquieu published in his book the idea of the seperation of power, which influenced the French and American government.
  • America declares independence

    The Second Continental Congress wrote the Declaration of Independence, and the colonists declared their independence from Britain. Shortly after the Declaration of Independence was written, Britian declared war against the colonists. Britain surrendered and America was independent.
  • French Revolution

    The people of the Third Estate in France were angered about the raise in taxes and the deep debt France was in because of King Louis XVI. They finally decided to fight back against the government when they weren't granted access to have an input on the new laws King Louis was going to make. They broke down the doors of an indoor tennis court and the made a pledge to fight for their independence; this pledge was called the Tennis Court Oath
  • Napoleon overthrows the Directory through a coup d'etat

    The Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people by the time Napoleon got back from Egypt. Encouraged by his friends, Napoleon quickly became the first consul of a group three consuls that came about after the dissolution of the Directory. Napoleon assumed the powers of a dictator.
  • Haiti wins freedom from France

    Nearly 500,000 enslaved Africans worked on French plantations under harsh conditions. While the French Revolution was taking place, the oppressed people in Haiti rose up against the French masters. The number of slaves overwhelmingly larger than the number of French masters. Because of that and the great leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the Haitians won their freedo from France.
  • Napoleon crowns himself emperor, begins to create a vast European Empire

    Napoleon decided to make himself emperor, so on December 2, 1804, he walked down the long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral and took the crown from the pope and literally crowned himself. With that gesture, he signaled he was more powerful than the Church. But Napoleon was not content to be simply the master of France; he wanted to expand the empire of France.
  • Padre Hidalgo calls for Mexican Independence

    Padre Hidalgo was a priest in the small village of Dolores. He believed in the ideas of the Enlightenment. He rang the bells of hs church, and when the peasants gathered in the church, he issued a called for Mexican Independence, which is today know as the Grito de Dolores (the cry of Dolores).
  • Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo

    When Napoleon was emperor of France again, European allies quickly marshaled their armies. The British army, led by the Duke of Wellington, prepared for battle near the villae of Waterloo. Napoleon and his army fought against the British army for days. Eventually, Napoleon's exhausted troops gave up, and they were chased away by the British and Prussian forces. The Prussians arrived later in the afternoon of the 18th, to join the British.