Early Modern Europe Timeline by Savannah

  • Period: Mar 4, 1394 to Nov 13, 1460

    Henry the Navigator's Rule

    Henry the Navigator was an influential leader of Portugal whose funding of voyages led to Portugal's success in exploration. He additionally funded ports along the coast of Africa that allowed each new expedition to get farther than the last.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Invention of the Gutenberg Printing Press

    Invention of the Gutenberg Printing Press
    The Gutenberg Printing Press is one of the most important inventions of the Modern Era. It increased the literacy rates in Europe, allowed for information to spread much faster, and created a significant price drop in books
  • Period: Mar 14, 1472 to

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Spanish Inquisition was a highly organized system of torturing people back to Catholicism and a key part of the Counter-Reformation. It was important because it killed many and created a dangerous time for most to live.
  • Mar 12, 1488

    Bartholomeu Dias Reaches the Tip of Africa

    When Bartholomeu Dias reached the Southern tip of Africa he completed an important step in finding an Eastern water route to the Spice Islands. Explorers did not know if Africa ended, but his voyage trip solidified the fact that it did. By bringing Portugal one step closer to the Spice Islands Dias helped to bring wealth to the nation in the future.
  • Sep 3, 1492

    Columbus Reaches the Americas

    Columbus Reaches the Americas
    Christopher Columbus' voyages were supposed to find a Western route for Spain to the Spice Islands. Instead, he became the first European to discover the Americas. His journeys discovered the route to the Americas that many would take as the Americas were conquered.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas is Created

    The Treaty of Tordesillas, created by the Pope, was an attempt to keep the leading Catholic countries from fighting. Both Portugal and Spain were leaders in exploration. To divide the land that they could conquer the Line of Demarcation was created in the treaty, giving the Western half of the line to Spain and the Eastern half to Portugal.
  • May 20, 1498

    Vasco da Gama Lands in India

    Vasco da Gama Lands in India
    After many failed voyages that attempted to find a water route to India, Vasco de Gama succeeded. Landing in India, de Gama put Portugal ahead of its neighbors and would eventually bring the country large amounts of money.
  • Apr 22, 1500

    Pedro Cabral Arrives in Brazil

    Pedro Cabral was a Portuguese voyager who was the first European to discover Brazil. He claimed it for Portugal and was the main place that the Portuguese conquered in the Americas.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Ninety-Five Theses is Posted

    Ninety-Five Theses is Posted
    The Ninety-Five Theses was a list of changes to the Catholic Church that Martin Luther wrote and posted on the doors of the Wittenberg Castle Church on All Hallows Eve. The Ninety-Five Theses was posted at a time when people were ready for change. Luther's beliefs, included in the 95 Theses, were that salvation was based on faith and not actions and that indulgences should not be used. The 95 Theses were eventually distributed around Germany and sparked the Protestant Revolution.
  • Apr 17, 1521

    Diet of Worms Begins

    Diet of Worms Begins
    At the Diet of Worms, Charles V called Martin Luther to recall the comments he had made about the Papacy. However, Luther refused to recall the things he had said and won a debate against Charles V. The victory helped to spread Luther's messages and made the King, one of the faces of the Papacy, look weak.
  • Aug 15, 1521

    Hernan Cortes Defeats the Aztecs

    Hernan Cortes Defeats the Aztecs
    Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs with a far smaller army because he had access to more potent weapons and brought disease. The conquering of the Aztecs was just one example of a tribe that was killed and lost their heritage for European wealth.
  • Sep 5, 1521

    Ferdinand Magellan's Ships Return

    Ferdinand Magellan sailed for Portugal. He was a significant person because he was deemed the first person to circumnavigate the world. However, before coming back to Portugal he died in the Philippines. His crew did return without him.
  • May 23, 1533

    Henry VIII Annuls his Marriage

    Henry VIII Annuls his Marriage
    Henry VIII of England wanted to annul his marriage to Queen Katherine, his first wife, but the Pope disapproved of this decision. By getting the annulment and defying the Pope he was eventually excommunicated. This impacted England greatly because a new national religion was enacted, Anglicanism.
  • Jan 1, 1541

    John Calvin Makes Geneva the Capital of Calvinism

    Making Geneva the Capital of Calvinism created a stronghold for the religion. It became a center of the Protestant reformation.
  • Sep 9, 1543

    Queen Mary I Takes the English Throne

    Queen Mary  I Takes the English Throne
    Queen Mary I was an important leader of England, despite her short reign, as she was one of the only Catholic leaders after the English Reformation began. When she became Queen she switched England's national religion from Anglicanism to Catholicism. She was also nick-named 'Bloody Mary' because she killed hundreds of Anglican priests after the switch was made.
  • Period: Dec 12, 1545 to Dec 4, 1563

    The Council of Trent Meets

    The Council of Trent was a group of Catholic Church higher-ups that met over 18 years. They worked to improve the Papacy to keep members of the Catholic Church from leaving and becoming Protestant. The council was a key part of the Catholic Reformation and greatly impacted religion in the period.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg is Implemented

    The Peace of Augsburg was an agreement that ended warfare in Germany and let states choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism. This was significant because it was an example that religious toleration could be successful. Additionally, it allowed Lutherans and Catholics to peacefully coexist.
  • Aug 23, 1570

    First Day of the Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

    First Day of the Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
    After 20 of the Queen's guards killed Protestant leaders in Paris in the middle of the night, those in France took it as a sign that they should start killing Protestants. Somewhere from 33-37,000 people were killed during the two weeks of killing. This period was a major setback as the two religions worked towards peace.
  • Dec 13, 1577

    Francis Drake Returns to England from Circumnavigating the World

    Francis Drake was a privateer hired by Queen Elizabeth I to steal Spanish gold. His heists drove him all over the globe and caused him to be the second person to circumnavigate the world.
  • Spanish Armada is Defeated

    Spanish Armada is Defeated
    The defeat of the Spanish Armada is one of the most famous military defeats in recent history. Queen Elizabeth I of England and King Phillip II of Spain did not get along. After Queen Elizabeth continually poked the bear King Phillip decided to send the Spanish Armada to defeat England. When the English defeated the Spanish, Spain was launched into a period of bankruptcy and England became the biggest power in the world.
  • Queen Elizabeth I's Rule Begins

    Queen Elizabeth I's Rule Begins
    Queen Elizabeth I of England had a very important reign. She reinstated Anglicanism as the national religion of England, led the defeat against the Spanish Armada, and made England the number one power in the world.
  • Edict of Nantes is Finalized

    The Edict of Nantes was a peace treaty that ended Bartholomew's Day Massacres and the killing afterward. It was important because it was the most equal peace treaty between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France.
  • Dutch East India Company is Created

    Dutch East India Company is Created
    The Dutch East India Company was a joint stock company created by the Dutch that brought them large amounts of money. It was created because it was too complicated for the Dutch government to make decisions for the operation in East India. This company was unique because it could delcare war and was the richest company ever.
  • Thirty Years' War Begins

    Thirty Years' War Begins
    The Thirty Years' War was one of the most destructive wars between Catholicism and Protestantism. It led to over 8 million deaths and created a power shift in Europe.
  • Long Parliament Begins

    Long Parliament was a 20-year period when Parliament did not dissolve itself. This was directly after the Root and Branch Agreement was passed, giving Parliament the power to dissolve itself. It was important because it did not let Charles I escape Parliament.
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    Louis XIV's Reign

    Louis XIV was the best example of absolutism. During his influential 72-year reign he created a successful and centralized government. This government eventually led to the downfall of France because of his decisions as an absolutist leader. 72
  • Execution of King Charles I

    Execution of King Charles I
    The execution of King Charles I of England happened after Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers in the war between Parliament and the monarchy. His execution started the period of the Commonwealth and the abolition of the monarchy.
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    The Commonwealth was a period of English history where the monarchy was abolished and Calvinism was made to be the national religion. During this period Oliver Cromwell, a military genius who led Parliament's victory, became the dictator of England. This period was an unhappy one for most in English history because many fun activities were banned including gambling.
  • Glorious Revolution Begins

    Glorious Revolution Begins
    The Glorious Revolution was when William of Orange was invited to take over England. He was a Calvinist leader and the leader of England at the time, James II, was Catholic. The English wanted a Protestant leader, so they chose William who was Dutch and Calvinist because there were no other Anglican countries. It was called the Glorious Revolution because there were hardly any deaths.
  • The Bill of Rights is Passed

    The Bill of Rights was an important bill passed in England under William and Mary's rule. It gave Parliament more power and instated a Constitutional Monarchy. It was the first step towards the monarchy that England has today that does not make decisions.