The year Rome was founded
Rome became a Republic
Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE
The First Punic WarRome fought the Punic Wars against Carthage. Rome spent 20 years rebuilding their navy, which led them to key victories for 20 years on the strength of their engineering and solidarity.
Period: 218 BCE to 201 BCE
The Second Punic WarThe second war broke out because of Spain
In 237 BC Hamilcar Barca established new settlements in Spain
He died in 229 and made his son swear a blood oath against Rome
Hannibal crossed the Alps with 100k men and 40 some elephants
For 15 years Hannibal won battles but never captured Rome
Hannibal's RetreatIn 203 BC, Hannibal was forced to retreat to defend North Africa from Scipio
The next year, Scipio crushed Hannibal at Zama and Carthage surrendered
Period: 149 BCE to 146 BCE
Third Punic WarIn the Third Punic War, Carthage was destroyed
Salt was poured on the land so nothing would grow
One by one, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor became Roman provinces as the Republic followed a policy of imperialism
Roman PrideBy this time, Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum - “Our Sea”
This shows how proud the Romans were of their accomplishments.
Tiberius GracchusTiberius Gracchus called for the state to distribute land to the poor.
This is one of the first examples of welfare.
Gius GracchusTiberius's brother, Gius, sought public funds to buy grain for the poor. These brothers cared for the citizens of Rome who were not as financially stable.
TrajanHe ruled by example, not fear. Built columns, arches, and bridges. Conquered the Dacians. He allowed Christians to practice. He instituted the welfare system. He adopts Hadrian as his son and died in 117 AD
The Fire of RomeEmperor Nero burned down Rome and then blamed Christians for it. This led to extreme persecution of Christians, and also being a Christian was illegal in the Roman Empire.
Death of Julius CaesarSome of Julias Ceaser's accomplishments include stabilizing Rome, conquering nations such as Egypt, Gaul, and Britain. He was stabbed to death by senators who feared his influence and power.
Period: 27 BCE to 180
Pax Romana - Peace of RomeFor 200 years from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, people enjoyed the Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace”. Roman legions protected and maintained roads, Roman fleets chased pirates, plenty of food, and knowledge and ideas spread throughout the empire.
End of Octavian's RuleHe gave himself the title Augustus, “the exalted one.”
He ruled until 14 A.D., ending the republic but creating a stable government
A postal service, new roads, and coins helped trade
A census counted the people to collect taxes fairly
A well trained civil service was hired, based on merit
Birth of JesusJesus was born around 4 BC in Bethlehem, near Jerusalem.
Death of JesusJesus was crucified in 33 AD and had then raised to life three days later. His 12 disciples continued to spread this and started the Christian Church
Rebellion against Rome because of ChristianityIn AD 66, discontent turned into open rebellion against Rome.
This is because the Zealots called for a revolt against Rome. Many believed that God would soon send a messiah, an anointed king, who would lead them to freedom from Rome.
Destruction of JerusalemIn AD 70, Rome crushed the uprising and burned the Jewish temple in Jerusalem
Mt. VesuviusIn A.D. 79, a volcano, Mt. Vesuvius, erupted, burying Pompeii in ash, trapping residents but preserving their homes and artwork.
Historians are able to see exactly what a Roman city was like because this was so well preserved because it was trapped in ash,
Period: 81 to 96
DomitianHe was a brutal Emperor known for being a dominating emperor. He took away all power from the Senate and ruled with an iron fist. He severely persecuted Christians. He was very loyal to Roman religion
NervaGranted amnesty to all persecuted by Domitian. Improved roads and aqueducts. He realized how wrong Domitian was and tried to improve the relations between the government and the people.
HadrianHadrian - Become emperor in 117 AD. He was away from Rome for 12 years. Rebuilt the Pantheon and built Hadrian’s Wall. He was the Emperor responsible for the destruction of Jerusalem.
Death of Marcus AureliusMarcus Aurelius was the smartest emperor. Conquered the Germanians. He died in 180 AD and succeeded by his son, Commodus
Diocletian's AttemptIn 284, Emperor Diocletian set out to restore order in the empire. He appointed a co-emperor, Maximian, and divided the empire in half to ease administration
Maximian ruled the western provinces while Diocletian retained the wealthier eastern provinces
Constantine's ConversionIn 312 AD the emperor Constantine was getting ready for a battle
He saw a vision of a cross that said he would win. He believed Jesus helped him win
Constantine ordered all persecution to stop and he becomes a Christian
Edict of MilanIn AD 313 the Edict of Milan granted freedom of worship to the citizens of the Roman empire
By the end of the century, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of Rome.
The HunsThe vicious Huns moved into Central Europe, pushing the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and others before them.