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China Timeline

  • 202

    Silk Road (BC)

    Started when China's main trade was silk. Originally, they only traded within China, but overtime, the trade route began to grow larger and larger. It ended up being 7000 miles long and spread through China, Central Asia, Northern India, and the Parthian and Roman Empires. Trading silk played only a minor role in China's economy. Through trading silk, China exposed their religions and cultures to where they traded it.By 760 AD, trade along the Silk Road declined.
  • Nov 11, 1207

    Mongol Conquest (esp. Genghis Khan & Kubilai Khan)

    Grnghis Khan is known as one of the worlds greatest conquerors. He led the Mongols on many bloody invasions slaughtering an unknown number of people. His garndson Kubilai Khan conquered China and moved the capital to the city now known as Beijing in 1271. In the Mongols prime it stretched from Korea in the east to Hungary in the west and as far south as Vietnam.
  • Nov 11, 1254

    Marco Polo

    He was born in 1254 and was a Venetian merchant who wrote a book about his travels called Milione. This book basically introduced Europeans to China and Central Asia. He was put in jail but was released in 1299 and be became a wealthy merchant. He died in 1324.
  • Nov 11, 1420

    Forbidden City

    Was the imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the endof the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing and for 500 years housed emperors and their families. It has 980 building and is 7,800,000 sq ft. Started building in 1406, but opened in 1420.
  • Qing Dynasty

    In 1644, the Qing army captured Beijing and out their regime there. Was established by Huang Taiji. In the beginning, the Qing court made a series of policies to revive the economy and fix the class contradiction. They resumed the 'Sheng' administrative system after it was ceased in 1368. Qing dynasty continued until 1912.
  • First Opium War

    From 1839-1842. Fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty because of a discrepency of viewpoints about diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice. Ended with the Treaty of Nanking (China later called the unequal treaties). This treaty granted the opening of five ports and the cession of Hong Kong.Failure to satisfy British goals, it led to the second Opium War.
  • Second Opium War

    Fought from 1856-1860. Fought between the British Empire, Seconf French Empire, and the Qing dynasty. Fought for similar issues in the first war.
  • Open Door Policy

    China was still not seen as a sovereign nation from the bigger powers. President Hay proposed the Open Doors Policy, which called for there to be equal rights in all parts of Chinese territory and recognition for China. No nation openly agreed to the policy so Hay anounced that they all agreed, however, Russia and Japan openly disagreed with the policy.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    It was also known as the Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement. It was a proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society. It lasted from 1898 to 1901 and it took place because China was angry for many reasons (opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation).
  • Revolution of 1911

    Also known as the Xinhai Revolution. It was a revolt against the Qing Dynasty, ending the imperial system and replacing it with the Republic of China. Ended in 1912.
  • Chiang Kai-Shek and Kuomintang

    Kuomintang translates to the Chinese Nationalist Party that became one of the most dominant parties of the early REpublic of China in 1912. It is one of the main political parties in Taiwan. It is based on the Three Principles of the People. Chiang Kai-Shek was a very influential member of the Kuomintang, and became the Commandanr of the Kuomintang's military academy. He became leader in 1925. He became China's nominal leader in 1926.
  • Mao Tse-Tung & CCP

    The CCP (or the Chinese Communist Party) was founded in 1921 in Shanghai. This group is also known as the CPC (Communist Party of China). By 1949 it had defeated the Kuomintang. It is the world's largest political party with over 80 million members.
    Mao Tse-Tung is commonly known as Chairman Mao was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC). He governed the country as the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
  • Long March

    It was a military retreat by the Red Army of the CPC (Communist Party of China) to avoid running into the Kuomintang army. It was not one march, but a series of them.
  • Japanese Invasion/Occupation

    Happened from 1931 to 1945. An estimated 2.7 million Bhinese were killed by the Japanese. Thousands were captured in the war and in 1945, 56 were found alive. The first phase was when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. The second phase was when Japan attacked Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanking.
  • People's Republic of China & Republic of China

    The People's Republic of China was established by Chairman Mao. People were defined by four social classes: the workers, the peasants, the petite bourgeoisie, and the national-capitalists. These classes were led by the CCP. The PRC was recognized by the Soviet Union on October 2, 1949.
  • Great Leap Forward

    Lasted from 1958 to 1961. China wanted to use it's population to transform the economy to a modern communist society usinf industrialization. Mao Zedong led this idea. Private farming was outlawed and those who broke this law were killed. This idea ended in tens of millions of deaths (18-45 million).
  • Cultural Revolution

    Took place in the PRC from 1966-1976. Started by Mao Zedong, the Chairman of the CPC. Wanted to promote communism by removing capitalist, traditional, and cultural elements from Chinese society. Also to force the Maoist orthodoxy.
  • Deng Xiaoping

    Was the leader of the CPC who brought Chana to a market economy. He never was Head of State, Head of Government, or General Secretary of the Communist Party od China but he served as the leader.
  • Tiananmen Square Incident

    Is known as the Tiananmen Massacre. Chinese troops went to Tiananmen ans killed and arrested thousands of pro-democracy protesters. Most were students. Some poeple fought back.
  • Hong Kong

    Hong Kong became China's first special administraion region.