Jiang failed to elimate the communists that made their home at Jiangxi so he issued his 'Encirclement Campaigns.' The GMD was to surround the CCP and cut them from supplies. In retailation, the CCP focused on survival and built the Red Army. Mao stated that on how they fight as 'the enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy halts, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.' Using the same strategy, 4 of the 5 campaigns was a failure to the GMD.