China's History

  • Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)

    Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)
    Chinese nationalists took up arms, angered by the government failure to prevent foreigners gaining increasing influence within China. The Manchu government eventually supported the rising and declared war on the foreign powers. China was forced to pay 67 million in compensation to the eight nation alliance formed by Britain, Russi, Japan, France, USA, Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary that took Pekin and defeated the rebellion.
  • Period: to

    Russo-Japanese War

    Humiliating for China as both foreign countries fought under Chinese territory for control of Manchuria.
  • Emperor Pu Yi

    Emperor Pu Yi
    Empress Tzu-hsi died, leaving her three-year old son Pu Yi heir to the throne.
  • Xinhai Revolution

    Xinhai Revolution
    In Wuchang, soldiers incensed that the government continued paying compensation for the Boxer Rebellion to the hated foreigners. The rebellion spread and most provinces declared themselves independent of the central government in Pekin.
  • End of Manchu Dynsasty

    End of Manchu Dynsasty
    A monarchy that had lasted for nearly 2500 years formally ended. China was now a republic
  • Kuomintang proclaimed

    Kuomintang proclaimed
    After the revolution removed the Manchus from power the Revolutionary Alliance jined with other parties to form the Kuomintang (KMT). Sun Yat Sen was elected provisional president.
  • Period: to

    First World War

    China fought with the allies against the Central Powers.
  • Twenty One Demands

    Twenty One Demands
    Japan submitted a list of Twenty One Damands backed by the threat of war, designed to give Japan extensive political and economic rights in China.
  • Yuan Shih Kai fall from power

    Yuan Shih Kai fall from power
    President of the new Republic of China, able to maintain order, rulling as a military dictator, Yuan Shih Kai convinced that his role as Chinese leader was secure, commits the terrible mistake of proclaiming hiimself emperor. Revolutionary groups did not want restorationn of monarchy and he lost support from the army too. Costs his fall from power.
  • Yuan Shih Kai death

    Yuan Shih Kai death
    Warlord era begins
  • May The Fourth Movement

    May The Fourth Movement
    The May the Fourth Movement began by university students in Pekin to demonstrate against the Versailles Treaty and the power of the warlords. They argued that China had become a country dominated by warlords who were more concerned with extending their own political power than in defending national interest. They wanted industrial development and a democratic form of government.
  • The Chinese Communist Party founded

    The Chinese Communist Party founded
    Founded by Chen Duxiu the CCP began as a movement of intellectuals with the support of Soviet Russia. Lacking military strength required to gain political power. It was prepared to work closely with the KMT, although it didnt succeed.
  • First United Front

    First United Front
    Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party alliance formed in 1923 to end warlordism in China.
  • Sun Yat Sen death

    Sun Yat Sen death
    Head of the military academy at Whampoa, Chiang Kai-Shek, elected by Sun Yat Sen, emerged as the new leader of the KMT.
  • Northern March

    Northern March
    Chiang began what became known as the Northern March a military advance by KMT forces with the aim of destroying the power of regional warlords and creating a unified China under KMT government.
  • Pekin felll to KMT troops

    Pekin felll to KMT troops
    Although some warlords continued to cause chaos in parts of China, Chiang Kai Shek had largely removed their power, became the military and political leader of China.
  • Period: to

    Five extermination campaigns.

    Prepared by Chiang Kai Shek against Mao as he was threatening KMT control of China. These camaigns forced Mao to fight a guerrila war against the more organised army of the KMT.
  • Japan invades Manchuria

    Japan invades Manchuria
    When Japanese forces invaded Manchuria in 1931, Chiang Kai Shek adopted a policy of non-resistance as it still did not have full control of China and because it was too weak to hope to win a war against the powerfull Japan.
  • Mao Tse Tung

    Mao Tse Tung
    Elected chairman of of the Soviet Republic of China. Mao controlled only a very small area, with an army (Red Army established by him in the same year) consisting of ill-equipped and poorly trained peasants.
  • The Long March

    The Long March
    Almost 100 000 communists broke through the KMT lines and embarked on a journey of some 9700km lasting 368 days were only 20 000 survived. It was planned by Mao to survive the encirclement of the KMT forces.
  • Chiang Kai Shek taken prisoner.

    Chiang Kai Shek taken prisoner.
    Chiang concentrated his resources on the internal reconstruction of China and on defeating the Communists. This policy was not universally popular within the KMT and he was taken prisoner by some of his troops. Mainly Manchurians angered by the Japanese invasion.
  • Period: to

    Sino-Japanese War

    KMT forces were quickly defeated by the Japanese and forced to retreat westwards, leaving much of Eastern China under Japanese control.
  • Period: to

    Second World War

  • Anhui Incident

    Anhui Incident
    Anhui Incident ends Second United Front.
  • Truce

    Truce
    Between CCp and KMT.
  • USSR withdraws from Manchuria

    USSR withdraws from Manchuria
    Therefore, fighting breaks out between KMT and CCP.
  • Mao announces land reforms

    Mao announces land reforms
  • Period: to

    Battle of HuaiHai

    Struggle for control of China
  • KMT defeated.

    KMT defeated.
    KMT i defeated at the battle of HuaiHai
  • CCP takes Shangai

    CCP takes Shangai
  • Republic of China proclaimed

    Republic of China proclaimed
    Mao announces the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
  • Chiang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan

    Chiang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan