Mao 1912-1976

  • Start of Xinhai Revolution/ Double Tenth Uprising

    At Wuhan, situated on the river Yangzi, troops refused to obey an order to suppress a group of dissidents. This pushed neighbouring provinces to join the military in defiance of Beijing. By Late November, all but three of China's provinces south of Beijing had declared themselves independent of central government control.
  • Sun Yat Sen as 1st president of Republic

    Comes back from USA after being called by Yuan Shi Kai.
  • Period: to

    Full Timeline

  • Formation of Guomindang

    Formation of Guomindang
    Official party formed under Sun Yat Sen. Both the communists and the KMT were against the warlords.
  • End of Xinhai revolution

  • China Republic formed under Sun Yat Sen

    Formal abdication of the Qing dynasty
  • Japan's 21 Demands

    A set of demands given by Japan to China that if accepted, would have destroyed China's independence. It allowed the Japanese to control the government, employ advisors from Japan in the Chinese government, have the police controlled under a joint force of the two states, and force China to buy from Japan 50% more of the munitions needed.
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    The Warlord Era

    An abscence of a strong central government, were it would be impossible to retain a civilian government in provinces. Private armies were created were the Commander-in-Chief of the province would take control of the area, and they would fill in the power vacuum left for them.
  • Yuan becomes Emperor

    On New Year's Day Yuanshikai becomes emperor. This aroused much more fiercer and determined opposition to him, as his position of emperor was self-entitled. There was a serious case of defection of generals from his army. --> In March he steps down from the throne seeing the opposition rising up, and he dies in april of liver cancer.
  • May 4 Movement

    A series of protests against the ToV's aim to allow Japan to retain its territories lost by Germany such as Shandong. There was a sustained feeling of resenment in China against Japan. The intellectuals in China were dissulussioned by the failure of the 1911 rebellion, and further dismayed by the west not allowing China to extend principles of self-determination.
  • 30th May Incident

    In Shanghai, a large crowd protested after Japanese factory guards shot Chinese Workers. The overreaction caused 12 deaths by rifle fire.
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    Northern Expedition

    Campaign against the Warlords led by the United Front. 1) Warlord Wu Peifu, who had control of the Central plains, was put down by cutting the supply lines of his army, thus recapturing Wuhan an Shanghai. 2) Army of 250,000 forces led by Chiang Kai Shiek overthrew Sun Chuanfang, after he had resisted his army of 100,000 from 1927. 3) After Zhang Zuolin, warlord of northern china between Beijing and Manchuria, had been driven out, the GMD announced its legitimacy of government in Nanjing
  • The Tanaka memorial

    Report from Emperor Tanaka explaining why Japan should expand into China. There were fears at the time in Japan that because Japan's food supply was decreasing and not proportional to its population, and that Japan would not sustain itself with a trade economy due to "englands and America's" capitalistic power. This gave reason to invade Manchuria in 1931. 80% of Japan's investments were in China
    Most of these were in Manchuria
    China accounted for 1/4 of Japan's international trade
  • Shanghai Massacre

    5000 communists and sympathesizers beheaded or shot. The green gang and triads of the city helped them acquire the information of the targets by passing it down to them.
  • Autumn Harvest Rising

    Mao attempts to gain the CCP independence in China, despite receiving orders from Moscow that unity from the United Front should be kept. Chiang Kai Shiek is assaulted from the CCP under's Mao's word that he was a betrayar to Sun Yat Sen. Mao Failed to acquire a force of 10,000 men, and found himself retreating to the Mountains in Jiangxi province, where the CCP would survive against the KMT for seven years.
  • The Jiangxi Soviet

    Mao dismissed ideas of keeping up the United front, giving him support, while those who embraced it like Chen Duxiu, lost support. Once arrived in Jiangxi, they set up the first Chinese soviet.
  • Futian Incident

    Mao ran a two month purge of a rival unit of the CCP in Jiangxi suspected of working for LI Lisan or the GMD. He tortured and executed nearly 3000 men. Torture method of Carrot and Stick. There was still other opposition at Jiangxi:
    Twenty-eight Bolsheviks who include Bo Gu and Wang Ming. These were people who were trained in Moscow and came back to China with instructions to make the CCP government conform to the orders given by the Moscow government. They branded Mao as a rightist.
  • The Shenyang incident

    Event considered to be the pretext of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Japanese officers from the Guandong army staged a plot where they blew a southern stretch of the manchurian railway, near Shenyang, capital of Manchuria. They blamed the act on Chinese saboteurs. The officers were in the war party in Tokyo, and appeale to the government to authorise punishment to the rebels. The Guandong army launched a massive sweep invasion across Manchuria, fully capturing it in 6 months.
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    Japanese Occupation of Manchuria

  • The New Life Movement

    Chiang Announced the need to:
    1) Crush the CCP and unite the GMD
    2) Return to Confucian moral values of harmony and integrity Such examples included the YMCA However Chiang could not go to the extent of removing the underworld societies dealing with drugs such as the triads, who helped him come to power in 1927.
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    The Long March

    A journey that took the Communists to a sanctuary in Yanan in Shaanxi Province.
    6250 Miles were crossed, 20,000 out of the 100,000 came out alive at the end, after 15 daily pitched battles against the GMD forces.
  • Zunyi Meeting

    Mao exposed the communists from the city in being out of touch from the CCp's needs. Mao opted a return for the successful guerilla tactics. From this meeting, a lot of members came out supporting Mao, a decision that marked the end of the Communist Moscow influence on the CCP government.
  • Xian Incident

    Trading Space to Buy Time
  • Double Seventh

    Japanese deliberately planned a clash to occur at the Maro Polo bridge near Beijing. The Japanese then used the clash to claim that to avoid further trouble, China should allow Japan to take more control over her. Chiang disagreed, and soon the major cities fell to control of the Japanese.
  • Rape of Nanjing

    300,000 Chinese slaughtered in four weeks
    People were shot, bayonetted, buried alive, soaked in petrol and set on fire, and suspended on meat hooks
    20,000 women raped
    Half of city turned to ashes
  • 100 Regiments offensive

    Under Peng De huai, 400,000 troops in over 100 regiments (communists) launched a series of attacks that destroyed 600 miles of railway, with extensive damage to road bridge, and canals. However, with a Japanese response, 100,000 communist troops were killed. Mao dismissed Peng because of making China lose face. It also revelead the size of the Red Army to Chiang, allowing the NRA to follow up an attack on the CCP taking 4000 casualties.