China dividedHumiliations heaped on China by european powers and Japan was main cause of decline in Qing Dynasty China had no sense of equality
Beijing - Son of Heaven
Others - Tributary states
British appeal for trade rightsThe British tried again in 1816 but its representative was not even received! Trade remained limited to 13 licensed merchants in Canton (Guangzhou) – the Cohong.
British desperate for trade rightsThe British were anxious to extend their trade and force China into a more modern and open relationship. By the 1830s, the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, was prepared for tough action – drugs gave him the excuse!
The First Opium (1839 - 42)1820s-1830s illegal opium imports from Britain were draining silver and caused social problems in China 1838, Emperor decided to ban this trade 3 million pounds opium destroyed, some british merchants imprisoned War in london exposed China's technological backwardness British captured Shanghair, pushed up grand canal in nanjing Treaty of Nanjin humiliating: Hong Kong Island given to Britian, 5 ports open for trade China pay compensation and grant britain equal diplomatic status
British TradeBritain wanted to extend trade to China, forcing China to be modern and open By the 1830s, Lord Palmerston was desperate (drugs)
The Second Opium War 1858-601856, Bristish ship, The Arrow, seized by China - another reason for Britain to attack China refused to sign new treaty, British and French burnt down Summer Palace Emperor signed Treaty of Tianjin: allowed embasies in Beijin,
greater trade rights, Christian missionaries to travel freely in China
Foreign InfluenceContact between Chinese and British merchants increased A need to learn foreignl languages set up language school in ports 1867, western style college opened, many opposed
China loses VietnamVietnam - tributary status In Vietnam, the French severed this link by destroying a Chinese fleet in 1884 at Fuzhou.
China loses KoreaKorea - tributary status In 1894, a Civil War in Korea resulted in Japan invading Korea, Lushun in Manchuria AND the Shandong Peninsula.
Treaty of Shimonosekieven more humiliating to China than the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.
The Hundered Days Reformthe Guangxu emperor listened to reforms and between June-September, hundreds of reform laws poured out from Beijing.
Set up new schools, colleges, examination systems
Improved government budget and got rid of corrupted officials
Empress Dowager Cixi rallied the conservative forces in Beijing and launched a palace coup on 21st September.
Emperor was put under house arrest and kept as a prisoner for the rest of his life.
Empress dowager Cixi forced him to give her full control
This slowed down
Boxer RebellionRebellion against foreginers, Qing supported 1900 peace negotiated massive damages costed twice price of revenue compared to TOV, evoked same reactions as germans
Manchu Dynasty1900 China ruled by Qing Family (came from Manchuria: Manchu Dynasty)
Over 2000 years of rule
Chinese most advance civilization
Skilled in astronomy, mathematics, engineering, medicine
First to use paper, invent printing
Knew more stuff than the west (make porcelain and paper)
Many Chinese inventions
Manchus 1908-11Western universities set up
1909, provincial assemblies set up
1910, national conservative council
9/13 places went to nobles
1908, empress dowager Cixi died
1911-1912 RevolutionDeath of Cixi (child emperor)1908 showed the impotence of dynasty
Massive budget developing on reforms and reparations since Boxer Rising
New armies expensive, army officer radical nationalists
Increased taxes necessary and the flooding of the Yangtze River 1910-11 mad people upset
Protests began when government tried to nationalise.
September 1911, Sichuan in chaos
9th October, city o Hankou, unfinished bomb exploded (for revoluionaries)-cause Wuchang Uprising
Han troops rebelled, took over Ha
Presidency of Yuan Shikai 1912-16Yuan want dicatorship Dissovled National Assembly European powers support Yuan 1915, Yuan wants to be emperor Early 1915, Japanese proposed 21 demands, Yuan accepted lost popularity Christmas 1915, army in Yunnan mutinied, Yuan had no more support Yuan died 1916
Warlords 1916-27Power vacuum in China after Yuan's death Warlords controlled parts of China 1916, warlords fought for power Warlords selfish and were cruel
The May Fourth MovementChina was on Allies side in WWI gained nothing from Paris conference (still under 21 demands, unequal treaties, Japan still had Kiaochow) 10,000 Beijing Uni students fought for modernism, freedom, equality, scientific progress other aims: simplify language Wanted to end foregin control over china (used foreign ways)
Warlords 1916-271925 Sun died of cancer Chiang tries to unit CHina July 1926, Chiang began march to the north Political agents try to get support from locals
sick of warlord rule GMD set up governemtn in Hankow, september 1926 Peasant welcomed GMD Bribery used to win support
Taiping Rebellion 1851-64leader, Hong Xiuquan, had failed the scholar examinations
hallucinations of going to heaven and being ordered by Christian god to exterminate demons
believed he was younger son of Jesus and demons were leader of Manchu regime
Offered mixture of religious mysticism and political and social reform
City of Nanjing captured, renamed ‘heavenly capitol’
Power divided many kings (commanders)
Proved Qing Dynasty unpopular
Relied on foreign, local and regional armies to stop rebellions
Nian Rebellion In
The Long MarchThe fifth campaign
-Autumn 1933 Chiang launched fifth and biggest campaign against communists
-New method worked out by Military advisor, General hans von Seeckt from Germany
-Stopped invading Red areas and fighting battles to capture (traditional)
-NEW METHOD: Surround Jiangxi Soviet with half million troops
built blockhouses, trenches, barbed wire while advancing slowly
-aim: starve the communists of food, fuel, weapons and ammunition while reducing their area