The Chinese Civil War 1945-49

  • Stalin promise on Manchuria

    Stalin promise at yalta and Sino-Russian treaty that he would evacuate troops from Manchuria within 3 weeks of occupation and complete withdrawal within 3 months
  • Soviet presence in Manchuria

    Soviet presence in Manchuria
    Soviet force under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky swept in quicky and were joined by additional striking forces from OUter Mongolia 2 days later, penetrating deep into Jehol and Chahar and faciliated the entry of CCP troops into Manchuria, where USSR turned over considerable amount of Japanese supplies and armament.
  • Start of CCP Offense

    Start of CCP Offense
    With the collapse of Japan in sight, Mao declared the time has arrivred for the CCP to mount a general offensive.
  • Period: to

    The Civil War 1945-49

  • Mobilization of PLA

    Mobilization of PLA
    Chu Teh, commander of the Poeple's LIberation Army (PLA) ordered his troops to seize all towns, cities and communication centers under Japanese occupation and to recieve the enemy's surrender and millitary supplies.
  • Chiang Appealed to CCP

    Chiang Appealed to CCP
    Chiang asked CCP to refrain from independent actions and ordered the Japanese and puppet forces to hold out against non-Natinoalist armies. Chu Teh denounced Chiang as pro-Japanese and directly asked the Japnese commander-in-chief in China , Okamura Yasuji, to surrender to the communist representatives. To over some communist geographical advantage, Chinag ask for USA aid.
  • PLA Advanced

    PLA Advanced
    Lin Piao led a 100,000-man army along the Peipinf-Mukden Railway, striking into Manchuria. Withing 2 weeks of the Japanese surrender, the communists expanded thier territory from 116 to 175 counties.
  • Japanese surrender in Manchuria

  • Chiang's order of Japnese Army

    Chiang's order of Japnese Army
    Chiang ordered Okamura to maintain order and keep all millitary supplies inside occupied territory.
  • Further Order from Chiang

    Okamura was told to allow passage only of Natinalist troops to the occupied territory. The Japnese complied fully.
  • Mao's Meeting with Chinag

    Mao's Meeting with Chinag
    Chinag in an effort to solve problems with the CCP and to achieve rapprochement invited Mao to a conference in Chungking. Mao flew there, accompanied by American envoy, Patrick Hurley
  • USA policy in China

    USA policy in China
    New policy called for continuing support of the Nationalist government on the condition that it not employ American arms to conduct a civil and that it thrive to reach a settlement with the Communists. Repudiating the former policy of unconditional support.
  • Hurley resigned

    Hurley resigned
    Patrick Hurley accused carrer official of the USA of plotting behind his back, siding with the CCP.President Truman appointed General George Marshall the most distinguished soldier in WWII as a peicail presidential ambassador to China. To assist the Natinalist gov. in re-establishing its authourity, including Manchuria, but not involve the USA in any direct millitary intervention. To urge Chiang to call a conference of all major parties to deliberate on the cession of the civil war & unification
  • Marshall arrived in China

    Marshall found both parties receptive to his ediation (1)ceasefire in Civil War (2)convocation of a Political Consultative Conference to deliberate the formatoin of a coalition government (3)integration of the KMT and CCP forces into a national army
  • Soviet Allowed Nationalist units to be airlifted into Manchuria

    Government entered Changchun and Mukden 3 weeks later
  • Marshall achieved objectives

    he commited KMT and CCP to calling a Political Consulative Conference, an immediate ceasefire and a restoration of communication. A tripartite Executive HQ was created, consisting of one Natinlaist, one Communist and one American member= dicision is unanimous. Similar team sent to field to supervise ceasefire.
  • Stances of the Ntionalist and CCP

    Natioailst, 5 times bigger army over Commmunist confident to crush the CCP, CCP sneered at 'paper tiger' Natinalist
  • Marshall achievement

    agreement regarding the relative strength of the KMT and the CCP forces and the integration of the 2 into a natinal army. Resolve that within a year KMT forces to reduce to 90 divisions and CCP to 18, follow by further redutino to 50 and 10.
  • Establishment of US Millitary Mission in China

    Establishment of US Millitary Mission in China
    1000 officers under General Wesemeyer, Communist forces included in US training program and recieve US armament before integrating into Nationalist forces
  • Marshall returned to USA

    to arrange a loan of $500 million from Export-Import Bank. Marshall's absence tested Nationalist and CCP sincerity
  • Restart of Nationalist and CCP clashes

    Restart of Nationalist and CCP clashes
    local clashes turned into large scale fighting in Marshall's absence
  • CCP strategic occupation of Chungchun

    CCP strategic occupation of Chungchun
    CCP dealt Natinalist a severe blow with occupation in Manchuria, it demandded an upward revision of the millitary deployment ratio in Manchuria from 1 to 5 CCP divisoins vis-a-vis KMT's. Chiang agrily rejected and ordered full-blown attack,resulting in recovery of Chungchun in May
  • Soviet forecs left Manchuria

    Soviet forecs left Manchuria
  • Marshall returned

    Marshall returned
    15 days truce arranged, but both party felt that Marshll obstructed thier ultimate victory. By mid-1946 Marshall's influence has waned.
  • Natinalist announced the Natinal Assembly

    Natinalist announced the Natinal Assembly
    open disregard of PCC resolution thT NO SUCH asembly should be called before the formation of a coalition gov.
  • Marshall threatened to return to US

    Natinalist won practically every battle from July to September, CCP accused US of usnig Marshall as smoke screen while underwriting Chiang's civl war.
  • Natinalist called off offensive

  • CHiang told Marshall he could wipe out CCP in 10 months

    Nationalist captured 165 towns and 174000 km square of territory from the Communists.
  • Marshall recalled back to USA

    Marshall recalled back to USA
    End of US mediation on the Civil War
  • Communist retreat

    Communist retreat
    pursued by 400000 Nationalist troops, by June, CCp liberated areas shrunk by 191000 km squared and 18 million population
  • Nationalist capture CCP capital of Yenan

    corwning success
  • Civil War Turning Point

    CCP army expanding steadily, reaching 1.95 million compared with KMT 3.73 million, general offensive CCP scored victory in Honan and northern Hopeh
  • Wedemeyer dispatched to China on fact finding mission

    Urge for Reform and USA assistance. Made little impression on either Chiang or Marshall
  • New Constitution

    Illegal National Assebmly adopted new constitutino, reaffirming Three People's Principles as the basic philosophy of the state, the 5-yuan gov, and the people's 4 rights-initiation, referendum, election and recall
  • CCP dealt Natinalist severe blow in Manchuria

    Lin Piao army inflicted losses of 150000on the crack Natinalist army. Nationlist pressed into small triangular area between Changchun, Mukden,and Chinchow < 1% of Manchuria.. Lin smothered the Nationalist troops
  • Chiang Kai Shek elected as president

    Chiang Kai Shek elected as president
  • CCP conquered Shantung at Tsinan

  • CCP conquered Chinchow

    100000 gov. troops destroyed
  • CCP conquered Changchun

  • CCP conquered Mukden

    Mancurian campaign cost Chiang 470000 of his best troops, mortal blow to the morale in entire gov. army.
  • 100000 gov troops destroyed

  • CCP conquered Hsuchow

  • General Fu Tso-yo of Nationalist capitualted at Tientsin

  • Chiang Forced to Resign

  • Nationalist defeated at Peiping

    General Fu surrendered with 200000 troops. BY January, Nationalist has lost one and a half million men.
  • Battle of Huai-Hai

    Nationalist lost 20000 men and 2 well-known generals. Mao now pressed to Nanking
  • Mao crossed the Yangtze to occupied Nangking

    refugee gov. seek asylum in Canton
  • Establishment of the People's Republic of China

    Establishment of the People's Republic of China
  • Nationalist gov. fled to Chungking

  • Nationalist gov. fled to Taiwan