Chinese Revolution (AOS1) 1912 - 1949

  • GMD Formed

  • Yuan Shikai inaugurated President

  • Period: to

    Yuan Shikai Government

  • Japans 21 Demands

  • Yuan Shikai renounces throne

    Hsu: his rule was a "virtual dictatorship". "Yuan was overtaken by megalomania"
    Lynch: Yuan held very real power through his connections.
    Ryan: "he was far from democratic in style"
  • May 4th Movement

    Hsu: movement was characterised by "a violent reaction against foreign imperialism"
    Morecombe and Fielding: "created a nationalistic fervour"
  • CCP Formed

    Sheridan: "The disunity and disorder... provided rich opportunity for intellectual diversity" "The founding of the Communist Party .... [and] Kuomintang... stemmed partly fro this intellectual flowering".
  • Period: to

    First United Front

  • May 30th Incident / Jiang claims power

    Lynch: Jiang "had no love for Marxism".
  • Period: to

    Nanking Decade - the "Golden Age"

    +Payed back 20/33 foreign debts, New Life Movement attempted, economic + industrial reform begun.
    -14,000 Blue Shirts (1935) - sworn to Jiang
    -300,000 political opponents murdered
    -24,000 comm's and 155,525 LW sympathisers arrested during the decade (from Nat. records)
    -Peasants pay 40-60% of crops in tax
    -Landlord tax can be 35-350% times that of the regular land tax
    -Gansu province pays 44 individual taxes
    -No elections
    "Chinese Fascism" - Gray
    "made stunning accomplishments" - Gray
  • Shangai Massacre

    -After seeing CCP influence, Jiang moves capital to Nanjing and attacks communists.
    -CCP at 50,000 members, 2/3's workers (orthodox)
    -2mil workers and 10mil peasants in unions
    -Jiang orders local gangs (Green Gang) to crack down on communists under the "Society for Common Progress" banner
    -Official death tolls: 400-700
    -Snow: 5,000-10,000
    -Suyin: 8,000 more next week
    -CCP membership falls to 7,000 and moves to Jiangxi (begins the Maoist rise)
    Meisner: "an orgy of counter-revolutionary violence"
  • Li Lisan Leadership

  • 28 Bolsheviks

  • 1st Encirclement

  • 2nd Encirclement

  • 3rd Encirclement

  • Japan Invades Manchuria

  • Jianxi declares war on Japan

  • 4th Encirclement

  • 5th Encirclement

  • Tanggu Truce

    the Japanese are a "disease of the skin", whereas the CCP is a "disease of the heart" - Jiang
  • Long March begins

    "It itself was a disastrous retreat following a devastating defeat" - Gray
  • Battle of Xiang River

  • Zunyi Conference

    "a source of national pride" - McDonald
    "We should listen to him" - Zhou
  • Laoshan Pass

    "When we listened to him we were successful, when we did not we were defeated... listen to Comrade Mao Zedong" - LM survivor
  • Alliance with the Yi

  • Luding Bridge

  • Great Snowy Mountains

    "The Long March... was a nightmare of death and pain" - Spence
  • Zoigê March (Grasslands)

  • Battle of Lazikou Pass

    "extraordinary feat of survival and endurance" - Ryan
  • Long March Ends

    "the biggest armed propaganda tour in history" - Snow
    "the concept of martyrdom for the cause became enshrined in communist lore" - Lynch
    "turn[ed] what might have been a demoralised retreat into a spirited march of victory" - Snow
  • Period: to

    The Yenan Way

    "a shining beacon of fervour and patriotism" - Suyin
    "womendu zhengfu (our government)" - Ryan
    "Behind the amnity and comradeship that undoubtedly did exist was a darker, grimmer reality" - Lynch
    "[Mao] was politically authoritarian" - Lynch
  • Xian Incident

  • Japanese Occupation

  • Sino-Japanese War officially begins

  • Period: to

    CCP in the Sino-Jap War

    "represented New China - hopeful, young, enthusiastic etc"- Hsu
  • Period: to

    GMD in Sino-Jap War

    -Flooded Yellow River; causing 800,000 killed and millions homeless
    -Allowed Japan to occupy 1.5mil sq km and 170mil Chinese
    -500,000 peasants conscripted to build 9 airfields
    -Most of the 3.5mil were forcibly conscripted
    -Lost 10,000 of 25,000 officers in first 6 months
    -8 mil recruits were unaccounted for (desertion/mistreated)
    -Price inflation 488% (Aug 1944)
    -Army Salaries fall 90%
    -10 political prisons in "free China"
    -By 1945; 80,000 casualties, 90% of the 3mil overall military casualties
  • Second United Front

    "70% expansion, 20% dealing with the GMD and 10% resisting Japan" - Mao (on the distribution of the Party's internal policy and energy)
  • Publication of 'On New Democracy'

    "prepare the ground ideologically before the Revolution comes" - Mao
  • New Forth Army Incident

    "Jiang's obsession with crushing the Reds diverted the Nationalists from attending to China's more urgent problems:" - Lynch
  • Period: to

    Civil War - the GMD side

    -In GMD areas, inflation reaches 755% and money system collapsed.
    -1947; anti-gvt demonstrations in 69 cities (May), 2538 strikes in Shanghai alone
    -Jiang resorts to mass violence (confiscation of money + property, conscription and summary executions)
    -Full scale war in 1946; capture 159,000 sq km and 18 mil people from the CCP (inc Yenan) -Suffer 400,000 casualties in the recapturing of Yenan
    -Lost 470,000 of best troops by April 1948 "All we can do now is resist until the bitter end" - Jiang
  • Period: to

    Civil War - the CCP side

    "It is possible to argue that the CCP did not so much win as the Nationalists lost" - McDonald
  • Battle of Mukden

    Nov - GMD loses control of all China north of Beijing
  • Xuzhou

    Dec - GMD loses control of railway junction at Xuzhou, allowing the CCP to access all of China's central provinces
  • Beijing

    Jan - GMD lose control of Beijing, essentially they had lost the Civil War.
    - CCP collects the rest of GMD held land easily
  • Chinese People's Republic