Chinese Revolution (AOS1) 1912 - 1949
- GMD / KMT / Nationalist Party
- Created by Sun Yat Sen
- Yuan was backed by the GMD party under the promise of setting up government in the South (Nanjing) and implement the Three Peoples Principles
- Peoples Nationalism, Peoples Democracy, Peoples Livelihood.
Yuan Shikai inaugurated President
- Expected to set government in Nanjing
- Expected to carry out the Three Peoples Principles
- Refused to set gvt in the South and failed to implement TPP
- Held elections (Oct '12) but refused to be constrained by the elected National Assembly
Yuan Shikai Government
- April '13: loaned 25 mil pounds from foreigners.
- Aug '13: crushes Sun's attempt at "Second Revolution".
- Nov '13: proscribes the GMD.
- early '14: dissolves Nat. Assemb, abolishes Prov. Assemb's, extends presidential term 10 years, enforces Provincial Military Governors (later Warlords), gains dictatorial powers and hereditary tenure (essentially Emperor).
- Jan '15: accedes to 21 Demands, another foreign loan.
- Jan '16: attempts self-coronation.
- March '16: renounces from throne.
Japans 21 Demands
- Known as the "Day of Shame"
- Gave Japan special placement in Manchuria and control of some internal admin and industry
- Juan accedes, losing mass support from the public
Yuan Shikai renounces throneHsu: his rule was a "virtual dictatorship". "Yuan was overtaken by megalomania"
Lynch: Yuan held very real power through his connections.
Ryan: "he was far from democratic in style"
May 4th Movement
- Chinese protest against the Treaty of Versailles terms (giving Germany's territory in China to Japan)
- Demonstrators around 5000, with 13 universities from Beijing leading
- Built upon the building 'New Cultural Movement' occurring
- Split between Democracy/Westernisation and Communism/Bolshevism began to divulge.
Morecombe and Fielding: "created a nationalistic fervour"
- Formed during the warlord era
First United Front
- Formal alliance of GMD (under Sun) with USSR and CCP
- Embarked on the Northward Expedition (unify China)
- Split between GMD/CCP occurred in April 1926
- CCP holds many executive positions and grew under the GMD wing
- Western Hills Group (break-away rightists) call for dismissal of Borodin (Soviet advisor) and the expulsion of the CCP
- GMD accedes and bans comms from occupying more than a third of executive positions - NWM continues without the Western Hills -Jiang grows wary of comm power
May 30th Incident / Jiang claims power
- Incident: British inspector orders troops to open fire on Chinese protesters; killing 11 and injuring 20
- Sparks hatred against foreigners and recognition that the GMD requires effective military force (not only ideological)
- Jiang Jieshi is selected as Sun's replacement (on account of being the most powerful military man in the GMD)
Nanking Decade - the "Golden Age"+Payed back 20/33 foreign debts, New Life Movement attempted, economic + industrial reform begun.
-14,000 Blue Shirts (1935) - sworn to Jiang
-300,000 political opponents murdered
-24,000 comm's and 155,525 LW sympathisers arrested during the decade (from Nat. records)
-Peasants pay 40-60% of crops in tax
-Landlord tax can be 35-350% times that of the regular land tax
-Gansu province pays 44 individual taxes
"Chinese Fascism" - Gray
"made stunning accomplishments" - Gray
Shangai Massacre-After seeing CCP influence, Jiang moves capital to Nanjing and attacks communists.
-CCP at 50,000 members, 2/3's workers (orthodox)
-2mil workers and 10mil peasants in unions
-Jiang orders local gangs (Green Gang) to crack down on communists under the "Society for Common Progress" banner
-Official death tolls: 400-700
-Suyin: 8,000 more next week
-CCP membership falls to 7,000 and moves to Jiangxi (begins the Maoist rise)
Meisner: "an orgy of counter-revolutionary violence"
Li Lisan Leadership
- Li Lisan becomes leader of the CCP (after the Massacre)
- Disagrees with Mao's straying from Orthodox Marxism
- Attempts 3 urban uprisings; all fail.
- GMD failed/ CCP won
- 28 Bolsheviks succeed Lisan after his failed urban uprisings
- Headed by Wang Ming and Bo Gu
- Mao is Chairman of Jiangxi Soviet (elected Nov 1931); fairly isolated and low in the party - probably under house arrest by 1934
- CCP covers 30,000 sq km and 3 million people at Jiangxi
- Jiang begins the encirclement campaigns
- GMD failed
- GMD failed
Japan Invades Manchuria
- Japan officially captures Manchuria
- By the end of 1931, Manchuria is fully occupied by Japan, vast protests against Japanese occupation is suppressed by Jiang Jieshi
- 1932, Manchukuo is renamed and declared independent
Jianxi declares war on Japan
- Increases popularity of the CCP with the people
- They are true patriots and the knights of China
- Contradicts GMD's Tanggu Truce
- GMD failed
- GMD succeeded with a blockhouse strategy; strangling the CCP (using orthodox warfare)
- Jiangxi province was reduced from 70 counties to 6 counties
- Oct 1933 to Oct 1934 duration
- Jiang Jieshi signs the Tanku Truce with Japan
- Officially recognises Japanese occupation of Manchuria, demilitarises Hopei and essentially leaves Beijing and Tianjin defenceless
- Only a month after Jiangxi declares war against the Japanese (compare nationalism)
- Jiang ruthlessly crushes all Chinese protests occurring in Beijing
Long March begins
- Escaping the 5th encirclement campaign, the CCP fled Jiangxi to seek another Red Army base
- Commenced with 100,000 soldiers
- Zhu De was Commander of the Red Army, Zhou Enlai was Deputy Chairman of Military Council
Battle of Xiang River
- GMD's 80,000 troops catches up with the marching First Front (86,000 begin march)
- 8 day battle ensues, aerial bombardment of the GMD over the marchers
- Marchers have to jettison most of their administrative equipment to cross the river
- Only 30,000 Long Marchers remain (mass death and desertions)
- Mao heavily criticized the 28 Bolsheviks and Otto Braun (German advisor) for (1) failure of the 5th encirclement, and (2) Braun's decision for a Westward direction that caused the Xiang Battle
- Mao wins support of Zhou Enlai
- Mao replaces Zhou as Director of Military Affairs
- Mao is elected to Standing Committee of the Politburo as Party Secretary
- First Front changes direction to "march north to defeat the Japanese"
"We should listen to him" - Zhou
- Red Army again cut off by GMD
- Mao developed plan to scale the high ridges, descend into Guizhou province and ambush the GMD
- Red Army defeat 2 GMD divisions, 1000 casualties, take 2000 POW's and take arms (inc 100,000 bullets) from the divisions
Alliance with the Yi
- In April, CCP meet with the Yi people in Lolo land (an isolated warrior community)
- In agreement for Lolo Independence and Mao's involvement in a tribal rite; the CCP gains support and protection from the Yi
- CCP supposedly crosses the Dadu River by using the Luding Bridge (reduced to thirteen chains by Mao to stop GMD persecution)
- Accounts of Luding conflict, as Chang and Halliday report that no such battle existed
- Often serves as an example of the Long March becoming deified and mythical.
Great Snowy Mountains
- Peaks over 5000m
- 9000 casualties during the month long trek
- Insufficient materials and uniforms, generals claim Mao did not give them sufficient preparation time
Zoigê March (Grasslands)
- Soldiers boil leather belts to eat, reports of cannibalism
- 32,000 of the remaining 40,000 soldiers die in the 7 day trip
- Again, Mao's generals complain of insufficient preparation time
Battle of Lazikou Pass
- 60 voluntary CCP soldiers scale 300m high cliffs to ambush GMD troops
- Rest of the Red Army can pass through the pass safely
Long March Ends
- Long Marchers arrive at Yenan in Shaanxi province
- Only 5000 of the original marchers remain (of 100,000)
- Crossed 11 provinces, 10 mountain ranges, 24 rivers, and numerous deserts
- 60 towns and cities occupied, covered 6000 miles.
"the concept of martyrdom for the cause became enshrined in communist lore" - Lynch
"turn[ed] what might have been a demoralised retreat into a spirited march of victory" - Snow
The Yenan Way
- Practised Maoist ideology (all 6); inc Rectification (beginning in 1942)
- Population grows from 30,000 to 1 mil by 1945
- Public self-criticisms, prescribed readings, and psychological "struggle sessions"
- Reports of torture and executions
"womendu zhengfu (our government)" - Ryan
"Behind the amnity and comradeship that undoubtedly did exist was a darker, grimmer reality" - Lynch
"[Mao] was politically authoritarian" - Lynch
- Jiang Jieshi is kidnapped by the Young Marshall after he (YM) refused to follow Jiang's instructions to attack the CCP
- Zhou Enlai helps convince Jiang to enter into the Second United Front with the CCP against the Japanese invasion
- Beijing and Tianjin fall to Japanese occupation in Aug 1937
- Nov 1937: Shanghai falls to Japanese occupation
- Dec 1937: Japanese take Nanking; Rape of Nanking (200,000 massacred for show)
- Occupied 170 million Chinese during the War
Sino-Japanese War officially begins
GMD in Sino-Jap War-Flooded Yellow River; causing 800,000 killed and millions homeless
-Allowed Japan to occupy 1.5mil sq km and 170mil Chinese
-500,000 peasants conscripted to build 9 airfields
-Most of the 3.5mil were forcibly conscripted
-Lost 10,000 of 25,000 officers in first 6 months
-8 mil recruits were unaccounted for (desertion/mistreated)
-Price inflation 488% (Aug 1944)
-Army Salaries fall 90%
-10 political prisons in "free China"
-By 1945; 80,000 casualties, 90% of the 3mil overall military casualties
CCP in the Sino-Jap War
- Red Army grew from 30,000 to 1 mil by 1945
- Red Army was well treated, and treated others well
- 60% of the 1700 battles in Manchuria were fought by CCP
- CCP fought 75% of all Japanese engagements
- 900 battles, caused 1 mil casualties, captured 150,000 POW's and killed 55 high ranking officers
- By 1945; CCP controlled 18 base areas, 1mil sq km, 100mil people and had both a party membership and Red Army population of 1mil.
Second United Front
- Formally initiated
- Red Army becomes a subunit of the GMD force against Japan
Publication of 'On New Democracy'
- Implemented "genuinely new Three Peoples Principles"
- Governance of the 4 Revolutionary Classes
- Political Reform (three thirds, universal suffrage)
- Economic Reform (equalisation, private peasant economy, slow move towards socialism)
- Cultural Reform (frankenstein-ing of other cultures)
- Sinification of Marxist Ideology
- Proletariat is a "mindset"
New Forth Army Incident
- Ends the Second United Front and begins the War on Two Fronts
- GMD troops attack the CCP's New Forth Army after Jiang accused the Army of insubordination
- Jiang committed 500,000 troops to the attack; despite only devoting small numbers against the Japanese
- CCP was able to act as the victims, above their differences and were dedicated to the Japanese Offence
Civil War - the GMD side-In GMD areas, inflation reaches 755% and money system collapsed.
-1947; anti-gvt demonstrations in 69 cities (May), 2538 strikes in Shanghai alone
-Jiang resorts to mass violence (confiscation of money + property, conscription and summary executions)
-Full scale war in 1946; capture 159,000 sq km and 18 mil people from the CCP (inc Yenan) -Suffer 400,000 casualties in the recapturing of Yenan
-Lost 470,000 of best troops by April 1948 "All we can do now is resist until the bitter end" - Jiang
Civil War - the CCP side
- Control of 175 counties by the truce with Japan, control of 59 cities and vast countryside
- Lost Yenan, 159,000 sq km and 18 mil people to GMD in 1946
- Red Army grows from 1.1 mil (1946) to 1.95 mil by Jun 1947
- Offensive; causes 400,000 casualties to GMD
- Retakes Yenan in 1948, Red Army at 2 mil, reoccupy Manchuria
- Three Major Battles ensure the CCP's success (Mukden, Xuzhou and Beijing)
Battle of MukdenNov - GMD loses control of all China north of Beijing
XuzhouDec - GMD loses control of railway junction at Xuzhou, allowing the CCP to access all of China's central provinces
BeijingJan - GMD lose control of Beijing, essentially they had lost the Civil War.
- CCP collects the rest of GMD held land easily
Chinese People's Republic
- Mao declares the Chinese People's Republic at the Gates of the Forbidden City
- Remaining Nationalists flee to Taiwan
- GMD casualities reached 1 million by 1949, CCP capturing over 3 million POW's.