Chinese rev aos1 pic

Chinese Revolution (AOS1) 1912 - 1949

  • GMD Formed

    • GMD / KMT / Nationalist Party
    • Created by Sun Yat Sen
    • Yuan was backed by the GMD party under the promise of setting up government in the South (Nanjing) and implement the Three Peoples Principles
    • Peoples Nationalism, Peoples Democracy, Peoples Livelihood.
  • Yuan Shikai inaugurated President

    • Expected to set government in Nanjing
    • Expected to carry out the Three Peoples Principles
    • Refused to set gvt in the South and failed to implement TPP
    • Held elections (Oct '12) but refused to be constrained by the elected National Assembly
  • Period: to

    Yuan Shikai Government

    • April '13: loaned 25 mil pounds from foreigners.
    • Aug '13: crushes Sun's attempt at "Second Revolution".
    • Nov '13: proscribes the GMD.
    • early '14: dissolves Nat. Assemb, abolishes Prov. Assemb's, extends presidential term 10 years, enforces Provincial Military Governors (later Warlords), gains dictatorial powers and hereditary tenure (essentially Emperor).
    • Jan '15: accedes to 21 Demands, another foreign loan.
    • Jan '16: attempts self-coronation.
    • March '16: renounces from throne.
  • Japans 21 Demands

    • Known as the "Day of Shame"
    • Gave Japan special placement in Manchuria and control of some internal admin and industry
    • Juan accedes, losing mass support from the public
  • Yuan Shikai renounces throne

    Hsu: his rule was a "virtual dictatorship". "Yuan was overtaken by megalomania"
    Lynch: Yuan held very real power through his connections.
    Ryan: "he was far from democratic in style"
  • May 4th Movement

    • Chinese protest against the Treaty of Versailles terms (giving Germany's territory in China to Japan)
    • Demonstrators around 5000, with 13 universities from Beijing leading
    • Built upon the building 'New Cultural Movement' occurring
    • Split between Democracy/Westernisation and Communism/Bolshevism began to divulge.
    Hsu: movement was characterised by "a violent reaction against foreign imperialism"
    Morecombe and Fielding: "created a nationalistic fervour"
  • CCP Formed

    • Formed during the warlord era
    Sheridan: "The disunity and disorder... provided rich opportunity for intellectual diversity" "The founding of the Communist Party .... [and] Kuomintang... stemmed partly fro this intellectual flowering".
  • Period: to

    First United Front

    • Formal alliance of GMD (under Sun) with USSR and CCP
    • Embarked on the Northward Expedition (unify China)
    • Split between GMD/CCP occurred in April 1926
    • CCP holds many executive positions and grew under the GMD wing
    • Western Hills Group (break-away rightists) call for dismissal of Borodin (Soviet advisor) and the expulsion of the CCP
    • GMD accedes and bans comms from occupying more than a third of executive positions - NWM continues without the Western Hills -Jiang grows wary of comm power
  • May 30th Incident / Jiang claims power

    • Incident: British inspector orders troops to open fire on Chinese protesters; killing 11 and injuring 20
    • Sparks hatred against foreigners and recognition that the GMD requires effective military force (not only ideological)
    • Jiang Jieshi is selected as Sun's replacement (on account of being the most powerful military man in the GMD)
    Lynch: Jiang "had no love for Marxism".
  • Period: to

    Nanking Decade - the "Golden Age"

    +Payed back 20/33 foreign debts, New Life Movement attempted, economic + industrial reform begun.
    -14,000 Blue Shirts (1935) - sworn to Jiang
    -300,000 political opponents murdered
    -24,000 comm's and 155,525 LW sympathisers arrested during the decade (from Nat. records)
    -Peasants pay 40-60% of crops in tax
    -Landlord tax can be 35-350% times that of the regular land tax
    -Gansu province pays 44 individual taxes
    -No elections
    "Chinese Fascism" - Gray
    "made stunning accomplishments" - Gray
  • Shangai Massacre

    -After seeing CCP influence, Jiang moves capital to Nanjing and attacks communists.
    -CCP at 50,000 members, 2/3's workers (orthodox)
    -2mil workers and 10mil peasants in unions
    -Jiang orders local gangs (Green Gang) to crack down on communists under the "Society for Common Progress" banner
    -Official death tolls: 400-700
    -Snow: 5,000-10,000
    -Suyin: 8,000 more next week
    -CCP membership falls to 7,000 and moves to Jiangxi (begins the Maoist rise)
    Meisner: "an orgy of counter-revolutionary violence"
  • Li Lisan Leadership

    • Li Lisan becomes leader of the CCP (after the Massacre)
    • Disagrees with Mao's straying from Orthodox Marxism
    • Attempts 3 urban uprisings; all fail.
  • 1st Encirclement

    • GMD failed/ CCP won
  • 28 Bolsheviks

    • 28 Bolsheviks succeed Lisan after his failed urban uprisings
    • Headed by Wang Ming and Bo Gu
    • Mao is Chairman of Jiangxi Soviet (elected Nov 1931); fairly isolated and low in the party - probably under house arrest by 1934
    • CCP covers 30,000 sq km and 3 million people at Jiangxi
    • Jiang begins the encirclement campaigns
  • 2nd Encirclement

    • GMD failed
  • 3rd Encirclement

    • GMD failed
  • Japan Invades Manchuria

    • Japan officially captures Manchuria
    • By the end of 1931, Manchuria is fully occupied by Japan, vast protests against Japanese occupation is suppressed by Jiang Jieshi
    • 1932, Manchukuo is renamed and declared independent
  • Jianxi declares war on Japan

    • Increases popularity of the CCP with the people
    • They are true patriots and the knights of China
    • Contradicts GMD's Tanggu Truce
  • 4th Encirclement

    • GMD failed
  • 5th Encirclement

    • GMD succeeded with a blockhouse strategy; strangling the CCP (using orthodox warfare)
    • Jiangxi province was reduced from 70 counties to 6 counties
    • Oct 1933 to Oct 1934 duration
  • Tanggu Truce

    • Jiang Jieshi signs the Tanku Truce with Japan
    • Officially recognises Japanese occupation of Manchuria, demilitarises Hopei and essentially leaves Beijing and Tianjin defenceless
    • Only a month after Jiangxi declares war against the Japanese (compare nationalism)
    • Jiang ruthlessly crushes all Chinese protests occurring in Beijing
    the Japanese are a "disease of the skin", whereas the CCP is a "disease of the heart" - Jiang
  • Long March begins

    • Escaping the 5th encirclement campaign, the CCP fled Jiangxi to seek another Red Army base
    • Commenced with 100,000 soldiers
    • Zhu De was Commander of the Red Army, Zhou Enlai was Deputy Chairman of Military Council
    "It itself was a disastrous retreat following a devastating defeat" - Gray
  • Battle of Xiang River

    • GMD's 80,000 troops catches up with the marching First Front (86,000 begin march)
    • 8 day battle ensues, aerial bombardment of the GMD over the marchers
    • Marchers have to jettison most of their administrative equipment to cross the river
    • Only 30,000 Long Marchers remain (mass death and desertions)
  • Zunyi Conference

    • Mao heavily criticized the 28 Bolsheviks and Otto Braun (German advisor) for (1) failure of the 5th encirclement, and (2) Braun's decision for a Westward direction that caused the Xiang Battle
    • Mao wins support of Zhou Enlai
    • Mao replaces Zhou as Director of Military Affairs
    • Mao is elected to Standing Committee of the Politburo as Party Secretary
    • First Front changes direction to "march north to defeat the Japanese"
    "a source of national pride" - McDonald
    "We should listen to him" - Zhou
  • Laoshan Pass

    • Red Army again cut off by GMD
    • Mao developed plan to scale the high ridges, descend into Guizhou province and ambush the GMD
    • Red Army defeat 2 GMD divisions, 1000 casualties, take 2000 POW's and take arms (inc 100,000 bullets) from the divisions
    "When we listened to him we were successful, when we did not we were defeated... listen to Comrade Mao Zedong" - LM survivor
  • Alliance with the Yi

    • In April, CCP meet with the Yi people in Lolo land (an isolated warrior community)
    • In agreement for Lolo Independence and Mao's involvement in a tribal rite; the CCP gains support and protection from the Yi
  • Luding Bridge

    • CCP supposedly crosses the Dadu River by using the Luding Bridge (reduced to thirteen chains by Mao to stop GMD persecution)
    • Accounts of Luding conflict, as Chang and Halliday report that no such battle existed
    • Often serves as an example of the Long March becoming deified and mythical.
  • Great Snowy Mountains

    • Peaks over 5000m
    • 9000 casualties during the month long trek
    • Insufficient materials and uniforms, generals claim Mao did not give them sufficient preparation time
    "The Long March... was a nightmare of death and pain" - Spence
  • Zoigê March (Grasslands)

    • Soldiers boil leather belts to eat, reports of cannibalism
    • 32,000 of the remaining 40,000 soldiers die in the 7 day trip
    • Again, Mao's generals complain of insufficient preparation time
  • Battle of Lazikou Pass

    • 60 voluntary CCP soldiers scale 300m high cliffs to ambush GMD troops
    • Rest of the Red Army can pass through the pass safely
    "extraordinary feat of survival and endurance" - Ryan
  • Long March Ends

    • Long Marchers arrive at Yenan in Shaanxi province
    • Only 5000 of the original marchers remain (of 100,000)
    • Crossed 11 provinces, 10 mountain ranges, 24 rivers, and numerous deserts
    • 60 towns and cities occupied, covered 6000 miles.
    "the biggest armed propaganda tour in history" - Snow
    "the concept of martyrdom for the cause became enshrined in communist lore" - Lynch
    "turn[ed] what might have been a demoralised retreat into a spirited march of victory" - Snow
  • Period: to

    The Yenan Way

    • Practised Maoist ideology (all 6); inc Rectification (beginning in 1942)
    • Population grows from 30,000 to 1 mil by 1945
    • Public self-criticisms, prescribed readings, and psychological "struggle sessions"
    • Reports of torture and executions
    "a shining beacon of fervour and patriotism" - Suyin
    "womendu zhengfu (our government)" - Ryan
    "Behind the amnity and comradeship that undoubtedly did exist was a darker, grimmer reality" - Lynch
    "[Mao] was politically authoritarian" - Lynch
  • Xian Incident

    • Jiang Jieshi is kidnapped by the Young Marshall after he (YM) refused to follow Jiang's instructions to attack the CCP
    • Zhou Enlai helps convince Jiang to enter into the Second United Front with the CCP against the Japanese invasion
  • Japanese Occupation

    • Beijing and Tianjin fall to Japanese occupation in Aug 1937
    • Nov 1937: Shanghai falls to Japanese occupation
    • Dec 1937: Japanese take Nanking; Rape of Nanking (200,000 massacred for show)
    • Occupied 170 million Chinese during the War
  • Sino-Japanese War officially begins

  • Period: to

    GMD in Sino-Jap War

    -Flooded Yellow River; causing 800,000 killed and millions homeless
    -Allowed Japan to occupy 1.5mil sq km and 170mil Chinese
    -500,000 peasants conscripted to build 9 airfields
    -Most of the 3.5mil were forcibly conscripted
    -Lost 10,000 of 25,000 officers in first 6 months
    -8 mil recruits were unaccounted for (desertion/mistreated)
    -Price inflation 488% (Aug 1944)
    -Army Salaries fall 90%
    -10 political prisons in "free China"
    -By 1945; 80,000 casualties, 90% of the 3mil overall military casualties
  • Period: to

    CCP in the Sino-Jap War

    • Red Army grew from 30,000 to 1 mil by 1945
    • Red Army was well treated, and treated others well
    • 60% of the 1700 battles in Manchuria were fought by CCP
    • CCP fought 75% of all Japanese engagements
    • 900 battles, caused 1 mil casualties, captured 150,000 POW's and killed 55 high ranking officers
    • By 1945; CCP controlled 18 base areas, 1mil sq km, 100mil people and had both a party membership and Red Army population of 1mil.
    "represented New China - hopeful, young, enthusiastic etc"- Hsu
  • Second United Front

    • Formally initiated
    • Red Army becomes a subunit of the GMD force against Japan
    "70% expansion, 20% dealing with the GMD and 10% resisting Japan" - Mao (on the distribution of the Party's internal policy and energy)
  • Publication of 'On New Democracy'

    • Implemented "genuinely new Three Peoples Principles"
    • Governance of the 4 Revolutionary Classes
    • Political Reform (three thirds, universal suffrage)
    • Economic Reform (equalisation, private peasant economy, slow move towards socialism)
    • Cultural Reform (frankenstein-ing of other cultures)
    • Sinification of Marxist Ideology
    • Proletariat is a "mindset"
    "prepare the ground ideologically before the Revolution comes" - Mao
  • New Forth Army Incident

    • Ends the Second United Front and begins the War on Two Fronts
    • GMD troops attack the CCP's New Forth Army after Jiang accused the Army of insubordination
    • Jiang committed 500,000 troops to the attack; despite only devoting small numbers against the Japanese
    • CCP was able to act as the victims, above their differences and were dedicated to the Japanese Offence
    "Jiang's obsession with crushing the Reds diverted the Nationalists from attending to China's more urgent problems:" - Lynch
  • Period: to

    Civil War - the GMD side

    -In GMD areas, inflation reaches 755% and money system collapsed.
    -1947; anti-gvt demonstrations in 69 cities (May), 2538 strikes in Shanghai alone
    -Jiang resorts to mass violence (confiscation of money + property, conscription and summary executions)
    -Full scale war in 1946; capture 159,000 sq km and 18 mil people from the CCP (inc Yenan) -Suffer 400,000 casualties in the recapturing of Yenan
    -Lost 470,000 of best troops by April 1948 "All we can do now is resist until the bitter end" - Jiang
  • Period: to

    Civil War - the CCP side

    • Control of 175 counties by the truce with Japan, control of 59 cities and vast countryside
    • Lost Yenan, 159,000 sq km and 18 mil people to GMD in 1946
    • Red Army grows from 1.1 mil (1946) to 1.95 mil by Jun 1947
    • Offensive; causes 400,000 casualties to GMD
    • Retakes Yenan in 1948, Red Army at 2 mil, reoccupy Manchuria
    • Three Major Battles ensure the CCP's success (Mukden, Xuzhou and Beijing)
    "It is possible to argue that the CCP did not so much win as the Nationalists lost" - McDonald
  • Battle of Mukden

    Nov - GMD loses control of all China north of Beijing
  • Xuzhou

    Dec - GMD loses control of railway junction at Xuzhou, allowing the CCP to access all of China's central provinces
  • Beijing

    Jan - GMD lose control of Beijing, essentially they had lost the Civil War.
    - CCP collects the rest of GMD held land easily
  • Chinese People's Republic

    • Mao declares the Chinese People's Republic at the Gates of the Forbidden City
    • Remaining Nationalists flee to Taiwan
    • GMD casualities reached 1 million by 1949, CCP capturing over 3 million POW's.