APWH Period 5

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    American Revolution

    In a political upheaval sparked by debt from the seven years war, indignant British colonists in the Americas over threw the British with French assistance after being taxed to pay for the war. The revolution was successful, and the American Constitution and Declaration of Independance both showed strong Enlightened ideals.
    KC: 5.2 An important nation that would later become a world power was formed
    5.3 In the war, the very idea of being American was formed, as well as the flag, Constituion, etc
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    Reign of Louis XVI

    The King of France during the French Revolution, Louis XVI didn't originally want to be king, but eventually took the throne. He spoke with protestors during the Women's March to Versaille and agreed later to give up his power as a monarch. Was eventually executed by the National Assembly, as a symbolic way to fully, "end" the Revolution.
    KC: 5.3 Played a role in the French Revolution and the huge growth of nationalism, became a symbol for many things that were wrong in the system.
  • Spinning Mule Developed

    One of the first steps in industrialization, the spinning mule was developed by Samuel Crompton. It eventually led to full scale Industrialism, and also gave Great Britain a head start in Industrialism.
    KC: 5.1 Was the first step of Industrialism for Britain
    5.2 Industrialism in turn led to Imperialism and the domination of the globe by the West, Russia and Japan
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    Simón Bolívar

    Considered the, "George Washington" of South America, Bolivar led armies in rebellion against Spain vying for independance in South America. While independance was won, sadly due to internal conflicts South America soon broke apart from Bolivar's dream of a Confederacy, and into several squabbling states.
    KC: 5.2 The problems SA experienced were due to Spain's imperialistic policies with natives and their unequal system 5.3 There was temporarily some nationalism in SA, although not enough
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    French Revolution

    Was a revolution origianlly against the inequal distribution of wealth and widespread starvation during the time, soon became a dispute over democracy vs monarchy and Englightened ideas as well as how radical the nation would be. Led to the creation of the National Assembly but was ended by the Council of Vienna.
    KC: 5.2 Formed the Assembly-France, had many radical (Englightened) ideas
    5.3 Huge nationalism, the French flag emerged,formed Englightened society, and declared the Rights of Man
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    Haitian Revolution

    Led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, it occured on the then French colony of Saint-Domingue, and was the only successful slave revolt that established a government. Led to the sale of Louisiana by Napoleon.
    KC: 5.2 Formed the state of Haiti as it is known today, also the impact it had on Louisian purchase is huge on United State's imperialism
  • Cotton Gin Developed

    Made by Eli Whitney in 1793, the cotton gin both allowed for the mass production of cotton in America's southern states, but also due to that, in some ways sparked the Civil War in America.
    KC: 5.1 Was in some ways the industrialism of agriculture, allowed for mass-production
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    Napoleonic Wars

    A series of wars between Napoleon-led France and effectively the rest of Europe, the napoleonic wars created new boundaries, spread nationalism throughout Europe, and forced the Council of Vienna. The wars were at first highly sucessful for France, but after disaster in Russia and a final blow at Waterloo after Napoleon's return, France was finished. KC: 5.2 Created Holland and Belgium, changed Europe's borders 5.3 Spread nationalistic ideas
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    Reign of Napoleon

    Napoleon Bonaparte, was a French military and political leader during the end of the French Revolution and was emporer of France, with a short break, until his second exile. He expanded French borders, established the Napoleonic code, lead France in the Napoleonic Wars, spread nationalism, and made the Conference of Vienna necessary.
    KC: 5.2 Expanded France, built/spread nationalism throughout Europe 5.4 Helped defend France in the Revolution when other Europeans tried to crush their ideas
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    Latin American Wars of Independance

    A series of wars led by Símon Bolívar in latin America for independance from Spain and also to end the class inequality and comination by caudillos, the Latin American Wars of Independance were partially sucessful, achieving independace but failing to remain united. KC: A result of imperialsm by Spain and their flaws, but also a failed nation state- the Latin American Empire
  • Congress of Vienna

    A meeting of European leaders after the Napoleonic Wars, redrew European boundries and set up Belgium and ratified Holland, also reestablished a French king. Continued with the European balance of power idea, and gave some former French territory away.
    KC: 5.1 In many ways set the stage for imperialism, continued with competing states idea
    5.3 Somewhat squashed the French Revolution ideas, but more importantly laid the groundwork for nationalism to really boom by giving solid boundaries
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    War of Greek Independance

    In a long lasting rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, in 1832 the Greeks were finally, with some foreign help, able to through off the Ottoman Empire and become a free and independant kingdom. However, it really showed the decline of the Ottoman Empire when they lost the Greeks, and how weak they were.
    KC: 5.1 Ottomans were weakening due to lack of Industrialism 5.2 Shows the decline of an imperialistic gunpowder kingdom 5.3 The Greek rebellion was highly nationalistic
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    The Opium War

    A conflict between the Chinese Qing dynasty and the British Empire, was essentially over the Qing not allowing the sale of Opium and the British trying to control the balance of trade in their favor. Britain used new technology to achieve a clear victory.
    KC: 5.1 Was an easy victory due to British Industrialism
    5.2 Britain controlled a sphere of influence and trade in parts of China
    5.3 Sparked Boxer Rebellion and Chinese nationalism
  • Communist Manifesto published

    Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the Communist Manifesto laid out its version of historical/political events and the class struggle. It supported the overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat and equal wealth distribution. Was hugely influential but was considered to be extreme by many.
    KC: 5.1 Was a reaction to the inequalities of early industrialism
    5.3 Led to the Russian revolution and USSR
  • James Watt perfects steam engine

    James Watt, among his other inventions, created a steam engine model that wasted much less power than the previous models and could be used for a much wider variety of occupations. Key addition to industrialism, ie steamship.
    KC: 5.1 Key part of industrialism, brought more wealth to Britain
    5.2 Gave Britain a headstart in Industrialism, also Industrialism really allowed imperialism
  • Women’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY

    A major feminist movement in the United States in 1850, the Convention discussed women's place in society as well as their rights, focusing particularly on the right to vote. In the end it was one of the first major steps taken within the United States for acquiring women the right to vote, and had ripples throughout our history.
    KC: 5.3 Was a highly radical and revolutionary idea for its time, laid the groundwork for future feminist movements.
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    Taiping Rebellion

    A highly nationalistic movement in China, the Taiping rebellion was both a movement against the weak Qing dynasty but also against Westerners and their invasion of China. They had goals such as establishing their version of Chriistianity and supporting equality for women. They were eventually defeated by a joint Western-Qing force.
    KC: 5.2 Came about as a reaction to Westerners holding up the Qing dynasty and the Western intrusion itself
  • Bessemer process developed

    An inexpensive process for the mass production of steel, used before 1855 but was patented in that year. It was an important step in the industrialization of Europe and through that, imperialism by the West.
    KC: 5.1 Was a key step in Industrialism, allowed the growth of many factories and Industrialism into more fields than simply textiles
  • Sepoy Rebellion

    Sparked by Hindus and Muslims were asked to split cartridges with pig/cow fat smeared on them with their teeth, the Sepoy rebellion was a wide-spread rebellion against the East India Trading Company throughout India. Was put down but Britain took over India and its governance.
    KC: 5.2 Both the IETC's and Britains's presence were examples of Imperialism in India 5.3 In many ways the Sepoy rebellion was a nationalistic movement, Indian independancy
  • Origin of the Species Published

    Written by Charles Darwin in England, this book proposed the theory of Evolution and a scientific explanation to why species are best suited to their survival methods. It was used as an excuse, (Social Darwanism) for Imperialism, as Europeans believed they were the superior race.
    KC: 5.2 Served to justify the atrocitites and domination of Europeans over the other races
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    Suex Canal

    Constructed between 1859 and 1869, the Suez Canal connected the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, and essentially gave Westerners a safer and shorter route to India and much of the East. It reduced the use of rounding South Africa however and took away that strategic importance. KC:5.1 The canal was needed particularly because now the West has industrialized, it had something worthwhile to trade with East with.
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    Unification of Italy

    In a series of alliances and wars, Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi united formerly broken apart city states and kingdoms into Italy into the modern nation, (about). Camillo however did not retain the power Giuseppe gave him in an interesting moral move. However, the two of them led to the cultural and political unification of Italy.
    KC: 5.2 Reunited what would be a major European player 5.3 Was a nationalistic reunification
  • Emancipation of Russian Serfs

    A major event in Russia's history, where they freed the serfs that were the majority of the population and gave them full rights as citizens. Sadly, it didn't change the lives of many serfs as they were indebted, but allowed Russian industrialism a large workforce so it could grow.
    KC: 5.1 Allowed Russian industrialism to grow more easily than with serfdom 5.3 While not a revolution, it was a huge reform that affected millions 5.4 Helped russian city growth and allowed serfs freedom to move
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    Unification of Germany

    Led by Wilhelm I's Otto von Bismarck, Prussia in this time period won three wars against Denmark, France, and Austria while managing not to look like the agressor in everyone and by doing so united the German Confederation under Prussia's leadership, and under Otto's philosophy of bllod and iron, war and industrialism, as well as adopting nationalism. KC: Otto pushed Industrialism which also allowed their victories 5.2 Formed Germany and expanded their borders 5.3 Created a nationalistic power
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    Meiji Restoration

    Restored an Emporer in Japan with real power and included radical changes to Japanese society and economy such as abolishing the samurai class, pushed industrialization and allowed Japan to compete with the West
    KC: 5.1 Pushed large businesses that industrialized and worked with gov't to comepte with the West
    5.2 Forced/allowed Japan to take over parts of China, Korea etc
    5.3 Boomed Japanese nationalism, to compete companies would cut wages, "For the nation"
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    Boer War

    A conflict between the British Empire and the Dutch/German settlers who had already established colonies in South Africa prior to the British invasion, was essentially over the shipping lanes to India of which South Africa was the key port. Many Africans fought and died on both sides of the conflict.
    KC: 5.2 SA became a part of the British Empire 5.3 The war actually caused a huge amount of support for the military in Britain 5.4 Large British populations would eventually move to South Africa
  • Berlin West Africa Conference

    A formal meeting acknowledging the scramble for Africa, the Berlin Conference was a meeting of the European powers literally divding up Africa between the various powers. Also was a way of acknowledging Germany as a new power, and the conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck.
    KC: 5.1 In regards to global capitalism, was in many ways a result of Europeans' and Industrialism's need for raw goods,
    5.2 Perhaps the best example of Imperialism, happened in only 25 years the continent was taken
  • Indian National Congress founded

    A political organization beginning during British occupation, it promoted Indian involvement in their own government, was very nationalistic and called for more equality between Indians and Brits.
    KC: 5.2 Pushed for a more independand Indian Colony
    5.3 Was nationalistic, essentially taking small steps to a free India
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    Boxer Rebellion

    A violent anti-foreigner in China, it was in many ways protesting the foreign influence over China as well as the imbalance in trade that for the first time in history, was draining China of wealth. KC:
    5.4 Was in many ways a movement to reinstate a Chinese government that had full control and supported the idea of the superiority of Chinese beliefs, culture, and philosophy- Middle kingdom
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    Panama Canal

    Originally begun by France, construction of the Panama Canal was taken over by the US from 1904-1914 and completed. It hugely cut down the time and danger of Pacific-Atlantic shipping and created Panama.
    KC: 5.1 Happened partly due to Industrialism and the trade it created
    5.2 US took over the region during construction, became an imperialistic power
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    Russo-Japanese War

    The first major East-West conflict with Japan involved, after territorial disputes the two nations went to war and Japan had a resounding victory, sinking the entire Russian Eastern fleet. Was a symbolic way of showing that they could compete with the West.
    KC: 5.1 Japan needed the territory and won the war due to industrialism 5.2 Was a conflict of two empires looking to expand their territories 5.3 Led to yet more Japanese nationalism
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    All India Muslim League

    The All India Muslim League was a powerful political organization that existed during the British occupation of India, and wroked to advance the political/social interests of Muslims. Shows the rift in India that led to Pakistani seperation, but also joined with Indian government to increase Indians roles in government.
    KC: 5.3 Pushed for Indian nationalistic ideals in government
    5.2 Demonstrates the divide that led to the creation of Pakistan
  • Invention of the Assembly Line by Henry Ford

    Invented by Henry Ford in 1913, was a key step of Industrialism that allowed products to be produced faster and therefore more cheaply.
    KC: 5.1 Was another major step in Industrialism, allowed cheaper goods and gave Ford an advantage over his competitors