AP euro super timline

  • Nov 29, 1200

    St. Peter's Basilica built: 326-349 AD

    A major basilica in the Vatican City, use to be one of the largest churches in the city. Remains one of the holiest cities, stands were Peter the apostle who considered the first pope was died and was crucified.
  • Period: Nov 29, 1200 to

    Ap euro super timeline

  • Nov 29, 1304

    Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)

    known as the "Father of Humanism" . He was fascinated by the classical past and was convinced that Ancient Roman artists and writers reached a level of perfection that no one has been able to reproduce. He spent hours searching for classical Latin manuscripts in libraries. His goal was to engender a new intellectual era through the recovery of these classical texts and liberal arts. (More info on pg. 378)
  • Nov 29, 1310

    Dante’s Inferno: 1310-1320

    first part of the Divine Comedy, talks about Dante's travels through Hell, embodies psychological tensions of his age
  • Nov 29, 1381

    English Peasants Revolt: 1381

    This revolt was brought about by English peasants due to to the changes of weather. After the Black Death, labor supply was low, so these peasants demanded a higher pay and few obligations. This resulted in the murdering of many people and the gradual decrease of serfdom. (More info on pg. 360)
  • Nov 29, 1415

    Jan Hus burned: 1415-

    czech professor and reformer, burned at stake, followers are Hussites, against abuses. burned at stake by council of constance, along with books and teachings
  • Nov 29, 1434

    Jan Van Eyck paints Wedding of Arnolfini: 1434

    It is an oil painting and is know to be on of the most western and complex paintings during this time period. Used many different effects that are almost unheard of during this time period such as light and dark, and perception to background.
  • Nov 29, 1440

    Johannes Gutenberg Printing Press: 1440s

    Before the printing press, everything was hand-copied. With this new invention, thousands of identical copies could be made. It started when Johannes Gutenberg realized that the same way that metal stamps marked signs on jewelry, he can cover those metal stamps with ink and produce them onto paper. He started making stamps with each letter of the alphabet, later known as type. The first printed book was the Bible in Latin in 1456. The printing press allowed a significant growth of literacy to t
  • Nov 29, 1453

    Constantinople falls: 1453

    Sultan Mehmed II was the leader of the ottoman empire at this time. The city was attacked by 100,000-150,000 men and was defended by 10,000.
  • Nov 29, 1469

    Ferdinand and Isabella marry: 1469

    Their marriage resulted in the union of Castile and Aragon (the Iberian Peninsula). The monarchy was unified under this new marriage but most of Spain still had separate languages, cultures, coinage and other legal systems. They reduced aristocratic power by not letting the nobility into the royal council; they appointed small landowners instead. They came to capture Granada in 1492 and Navarre in 1512. Their form of government allowed them to have only one religion, therefore forcing muslims an
  • Nov 29, 1481

    Botticelli’s Primavera: 1481-1482

    Botticelli’s Primavera is translated to spring. Shows his cultural impact and the roman and greek paintings occurring during the renaissance.
  • Nov 29, 1482

    Spain invades Granada: 1482-1492

    Part of the Spanish Inquisition, led by Isabella and Ferdinand, expelled all Jews from the Iberian Peninsula
  • Nov 29, 1486

    Spenger and Kramer’s Witches Hammer: 1486

    book written by two monks and blessed by Pope Innocent VIII describing ways to torture 'witches' to confessions during the holy inquisition
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus sails west: August 3, 1492

    Columbus wanted to find a trading route to India and convert others to christianity. He was finally able to receive help from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, where they named him viceroy of the lands that he conquered. He also receive 10% of the profits made. He landed in the Bahamas, which he later named San Salvador, on October 12,1492, but he thought that these were small islands off of the east coast of Japan. From there, he sailed southwest thinking that he was going to find China or Japan
  • Nov 29, 1492

    Da Vinci paints Last Supper: 1492-1498

    A symbolic Biblical reference, one of the first paintings depicting the disciples as real people in human force, during the Renaissance.
  • Nov 29, 1494

    Medicis flee Florence: 1494

    caused by Savonarola, led to decline of prominence of Florence.
  • Nov 29, 1494

    France vs. Spain/ HRE in Italian Wars: 1494-1559

    Fought mostly by France and Spain, resulted in Spanish Hausburg dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe.
  • Nov 29, 1498

    Vasco Da Gama sails around Africa: 1498.

    10 years earlier, Bartholomew Diaz reached the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa. He was unable to complete his voyage due to a storm. Vasco Da Gama was able to complete this voyage and he founded a trading route to India. He returned to Lisbon, Portugal with a ship full of new items from India. (More info on pg.451)
  • Nov 29, 1501

    Michelangelo sculpts David: 1501-1504

    "The Board of Works for the Cathedral of Florence commissioned Michelangelo to sculpt David that was left over from a previous project" (http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org)
  • Nov 29, 1503

    Da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa: 1503-1506

    painted while da Vinci was living in Florence now is currently hanging in the Louvre.
  • Nov 29, 1508

    Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel: 1508-1512

    Pope Julius II, was originally asked to paint the ceiling with a geometric ornament that initials the twelve disciples.
  • Aug 29, 1509

    Henry VIII becomes king: 1509

  • Nov 29, 1509

    Erasmus writes In Praise of Folly: 1509

    published in 1511, - had a huge role in the reforming of the church and largely impacted the renaissance. It talked about some of the churches faults in a more jokingly matter, but become popular and caused some to even question the church. Was specifically written for Tomas More.
  • Nov 29, 1510

    Raphael paints School of Athens: 1509-1511

    The school of athens was painted in 4 different parts. four frescoes. And was a based on the renaissance culture, showed many famous reformers and painters throughout his life, generation, such as Michelangelo and Galileo.
  • Nov 29, 1513

    Machiavelli publishes the Prince: 1513

    Machiavelli was a secretary in Florence. He was later put in jail and tortured for suspicion of plotting against the Medici's. After he was released, he published the Prince, where he is speaking about the most effective way to govern by using examples of other rulers. His main point is that a ruler should have order and security, even if means lying and manipulating others. As long as your people don't turn away from you, you will be fine. (More info on pg. 381)
  • Nov 29, 1516

    Thomas More prints Utopia: 1516

    Depicts an Island of society (fictional) of its religion and specifies the stupidity behind it. It’s aimed at protestants/before they were known as protestants.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther's 95 thesis: October 31,1517.

    The 95 thesis was a letter to Archbishop Albert with his concerns towards indulgences. Indulgences were a document that the Catholic church made in order to lessen one's penance and waiting time in purgatory. They would also bring forgiveness of all sins. Martin Luther was worried that people wouldn't take forgiveness as seriously as it ought to be. He wanted to the church to stop selling these because Christians weren't being as pious as they should be. He nailed the 95 thesis to the church doo
  • Nov 29, 1517

    Pope Leo X endorses indulgences, 1517

    allowed the papal authority to finance building projects in Rome and to help bishops pay off debts. Payed for a sin that one committed was what indulgences were for.
  • Nov 29, 1519

    Da Vinci dies: 1519

    considered leader of the Italian renaissance, engineer, architect, mathematician, writer
  • Nov 29, 1519

    Charles V becomes HRE Emperor: 1519-1556

    Charles V married Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter, Joanna, in 1496, thus inheriting Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. Like Spain, the Netherlands was only united in terms of having one ruler, but each of the states had their own languages and cultures. He tried to help the Habsburg's from the Ottomans. He was catholic, but with time, he let the protestants practice their faith. Lutheran ideas started to spread. He tried to keep Europe religiously united. (More info on pgs.400,
  • Dec 29, 1519

    Magellan's voyage around the world: 1519-1522.

    Charles V sent Ferdinand Magellan to find a sea route to the southeast coast of Asia. He sailed southwest into the Atlantic to Brazil. He thought that the ocean was calm, so he named it "pacific". Later on, his ship sailed north, into the west coast of South America. He then sailed into the Pacific ocean and faced storms, violence, diseases, etc. and later died. This circumnavigation lasted about 3 years. (More info on pg.456)
  • Nov 29, 1521

    Cortes conquers Aztecs: 1521

    the last aztecs surrendered and cortez become the ruler cultivating their lifestyle to conform to theirs as well as making many of them work for the spanish.
  • Dec 29, 1521

    Diet of Worms: 1521.

    This was Charles V first diet in which the goal was to officially excommunicated Martin Luther but instead created a bigger audience to reform against the ideas of the Catholic church. Even more people were rising up against the church and they were becoming anti clericals. (More info on pg.409)
  • Nov 29, 1529

    Marburg Colloquy: 1529

    the "shattering of Protestantism" Zwingli and Luther try to unite Swiss Reformationa and German reformation, doesn't work because of different views, remained divided forever.
  • Nov 29, 1532

    Pizarro conquers Incas: 1532-1537

    Pizarro arrived on the northeast coast of Peru in 1532, and won the empire after 5 years of fighting. He took advantage of internal conflicts in the empire in order to win it.
  • Nov 29, 1535

    Thomas More executed: 1535

    After Opposing Henry VIII'S marriage to Anye Boleyn. Henry didn’t like this and then executed him for treason.
  • Nov 29, 1536

    John Calvin Prints Institutes of the Christian Religion: 1536

    This in turn lead to a seeking of reforms within the church that later gets known as calvinism.
  • Nov 29, 1541

    El Greco born: 1541

    Was a greek artist, sculptor and architect who influenced defined that spanish renaissance. Born in Spain.
  • Dec 29, 1541

    Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits: 1541

  • Nov 29, 1545

    Council of Trent 1545-1563

    a council called by pope Paul III, in wich Lutherans and Calvinists were to meet in order to settle disputes and reconcile with each other, ultimately failed due to the political agendas of Charles V and France. Also started a time where the Catholic Church experienced many reforms
  • Nov 29, 1546

    Martin Luther dies: 1546

    Wrote the 95 Theses, credited with starting the Protestant Reformation
  • Nov 29, 1547

    Henry VIII dies: 1547

    Was buried in St.Georges Chapel in Windsor Castle, had a goal of six wives his last wife produced him a male heir to his throne.
  • Nov 29, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg: 1555

    Treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic league that involved the alliances of Lutheran princes in Bavaria, Germany.
  • Nov 29, 1556

    Philip II becomes King of Spain: 1556.

    He became King after his father, Charles V, abdicated the throne. Under Philip's rule, he was finally able to unite the Iberian Peninsula politically. In the Netherlands, calvinist ideas were spreading; these included opposition to political leaders if they were seen as "ungodly". The government tried to put a stop to these ideas by limiting their worship and by raising taxes. This resulted in the destruction of 30 catholic churches and later, in war. (More info on pg. 434)
  • Nov 29, 1558

    Elizabeth becomes king: 1558

    Her mother Anne Boleyn was executed, known for the religious settlement of 1559 when she enforced the Protestant religion by law.
  • Nov 29, 1562

    French wars of Religion Begin: 1562-1598

    These were a series of wars that were fought primarily between Protestants and catholics. They happened in France. The edict of nantes concluded the wars in 1598.
  • May 25, 1564

    John Calvin dies: 1564

    Led the Protestant Reformation in England, creator of Calvinism, which involved predestination
  • Nov 29, 1564

    William shakespeare born 1564:

    created a new cultural output tailored to the common populace. Shared different views of the king and events to the people.
  • Nov 29, 1566

    Dutch Revolt begins: 1566

    -Caused for religious reasons, Protestant Region in Northern Spanish Netherlands/Dutch Republic revolted against Spanish authority for political and religious independence from Spain
  • Nov 29, 1567

    Peter Brughal paints Wedding Feast: 1567

    The painting represents a peasant wedding and depicts some of the different things individuals do/did in peasant life. Oil painting.
  • Jun 9, 1572

    Henry of Navarre became king: June 9, 1572

    Had many religious conflicts during his reign dealing with the Protestants and there uprising attempts. Issued the edict of Nantes during his reign as well.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's day massacre: August 24, 1572

    king Charles of IX of France ordered the assassinations of Huguenot Protestants leaders in Pairs which led to the mass killing of thousands of hugeouts.
  • Spanish Armada:1588

    A Spanish fleet attempted to attack England and to overflow Elizabeth I, primarily to eliminate Protestantism. Failed due to climate and the small and faster English navy
  • Edict of Nantes: 1598

    Put a temporary end to the religious wars between Roman Catholics and Protestants which caused trouble in France since the 1560s.
  • Philip II of Spain dies: 1598

    Son of Charles V, devout catholic, Habsburg ruler of Spain from 1556-1598, led Spanish counter reformation but failed to invade Protestant England with Spanish Armada
  • Elizabeth dies: 1603

    "Elizabeth's always shrewd and, when necessary, decisive leadership brought successes during a period of great danger both at home and abroad" (http://www.royal.gov.uk)
  • Cervantes Don Quixote: 1605

    This is a book written by Miguel de Cervantes, shows a man and his attempt to understand chivalry and ends up being an incredibly popular book.
  • King James Bible Printed: 1611

    It started in 1604 and it wasn't complete until 1611. It was printed by the King's Printer, Robert Barker. It was the third translation of the English Bible.
  • 30 years war begins: 1618- 1648.

    The Peace of Augsburg, which allowed catholics and protestants to practice their faiths, was becoming less effective. The Protestants made the Protestant Union in 1608 and Catholics made the Catholic League in 1609. This war is usually broken down into 4 phases. The first phase (Bohemian 1618-1625) was a civil war in Bohemia that resulted in the catholic success against the protestants. The second phase (Danish 1625-1629) resulted in more catholic victories and the Edict of restitution where o
  • King Gustavus Adolphus killed 1632:

    king of Sweden killed in battle Lützen but Sweden won the battle and his generals kept Sweden in the war until the treaty of Westphalia was issued.
  • English Civil War Begins: 1642

    This was a series of armed conflicts between King Charles I and his Parliament. allowed for the Glorious Revolution to escalate.
  • English Civil War: 1642-1649

    It all began with wanting to put a stop to King Charles I for using illegal taxing methods and for not using Parliament to help. Parliament didn't trust the king with an army. So Charles went to Northern England and made his own army that consisted of nobility, gentry and mercenaries. Parliament formed their own army in London composed of the militia in London, country squires and business connections. Parliament won in 1645 but Charles didnt accept the defeat. So Oliver Cromwell captured Charle
  • Peace of Westphalia:1648

    Collections of treaty that grouped together to end the thirty years war.
  • Charles I executed January 30, 1649

    Ended the line of kings and kingship was abolished by Oliver Cromwell, who had Charles I executed
  • Rump parliament 1649

    created by Oliver Cromwell after capturing King Charles I and dismissed members of parliament who did not agree with his actions, the remaining were known as the rump parliament.
  • Navigation acts passed 1651

    mercantilist policy put into action by Oliver Cromwell that required English goods to be transported by English ships creating competition with the Dutch.
  • Oliver Cromwell becomes lord protector-1653

    :Gave him full power over everything and controlled everyone through military force and action. dismissed parliament and continued a standing army and instituted martial law
  • Oliver Cromwell dies, 1658

    A great relief to the people of England who were tired of the military rule. Caused the collapse of his protectorate.
  • Enclosure Acts: 1700-1801

    these acts were enabled to regulate land. At first in the 1700’s by mutual landowners. This eventual changed during the 1800’s when parliament took over.