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  • 1970`s

    Q1. All people of Africa saw the great achievement in the liquidation of colonial regimes and the transferring of political power to Africans. Africans associated high expectations with the declaration of Africa independence. There was widespread belief that the radical improvement of life will come almost immediately. Many African leaders were also shared optimistic expectations along with the most people, albeit with a lesser degree of naivety.
  • End of 1970`s

    By the end of 1970′s, practically all states of Africa were independent. In the 1974-1975, after years of heavy fighting, the Portuguese colonies such as Angola, Guinea, Mozambique and others have become independent. France left Comoros in 1975. In 1976, Spain issued “Spanish” Sahara, which then was divided between Mauritania and Morocco. Here, however, the bitter war was followed for independence. Mauritius ceded its part to Morocco in 1979. Zimbabwe gained legal independence in 1980.
  • Young African Nations

    However, as essay websites claim young African nations faced a number of challenges. One of the most important challenges was the establishment of a sovereign state. Ethnic groups may be divided by national borders but the loyalty to these groups is often stronger than to the state itself. When African states achieved independence, the dominant nationalist movements and their leaders have established themselves as the constant power.
  • Early 1990`s

    They called for national unity and inspired it, so, the multiparty parliamentary system was rejected in favor of a single state. When these governments have refused to comply with such wishes, then the outcome was the frequent military interventions. The new military leaders have posed themselves as efficient and honest public guardians but soon they began to provide the same policy. In the early 1990′s, many African countries renewed interest in multiparty parliamentary democracy.
  • After independence

    After independence, most African countries remained among the poorest in the world as they were before. Construction of government system is proved to be a very complicated process. Many of the difficulties were caused by the colonial past, while others were caused by the traditions of the pre-colonial times. Whatever instrument of colonial administration was, it was based on long experience, was serviced by professionals, and has already acted as a mechanism.