Jan 1, 1450
Printing PressJohannes Gutenberg became the first European to use movable type to print books. He used his printing press to print copies of the Bible.
Jan 1, 1475
Printing Press AdvancesPrinting press operated in England, France, Germany, Italy and several other Eurpopean nations. The books that these printing presses produced helped spread new humanized ideas to a large audience.
Jan 1, 1500
The ReformationNorthern humanists argued that the Roman Catholic Church had lost sight of its spiritual mission, Their claims lead to a reform movement called the reformation.
Jan 1, 1513
Machiavelli Writes The PrinceNiccolo Machiavelli writres the essay, The Prince. Machiavelli sought to describe government not in terms of lofty ideals but in the way it actually worked.
Jan 1, 1516
More Publishes UtopiaThomas More published, Utopia. Thomas More condemned governements as corrupts and argue that private ownership of property causes unnecessary conflicts between people.
Jan 1, 1520
Martin LutherMartin Luther openly disagreed with many church doctrines. He claimed the Bible was the sole religious authority.
Jan 1, 1521
Pope Leo XPope Leo X declared Luther a heretic. He excommunicated Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
Jan 1, 1528
Castigiolne Publishes The Book of the CourtierBaldossare Castiglione published, The Book of the Courtier. It was the most famous book of the Renaissance.
Jan 1, 1529
Henry Vlll Takes a StandHenry Vlll defended the church against Luther's teachings. The pope had even granted Henry the title, "Defender of the Faith."
Jan 1, 1531
Calvin Replaces ZwingliHuldrych Zwingli died in battle between Catholics and protests. His work carried on by a French protestant named John Calvin.