WHAP Review: Chris Kendall

Timeline created by Chris Kendall
In History
  • 1200


    The dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
  • 1200

    Silk roads

    The Silk Road was a network of trade routes which connected the East and West, and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century.
  • 1200

    Indian Ocean Trading Network

    The Indian Ocean Trading Network fostered the growth of states. Merchants set up communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous cultures and, in turn, indigenous cultures influenced merchant cultures.
  • 1206

    Slave kings

    Dynasty of slave-kings rule in India until 1290.
  • 1208

    Cambridge University

    Cambridge University
    Cambridge University founded.
  • 1210

    Genghis Khan

    Genghis Khan invades China.
  • 1230

    Teutonic Knights

    Teutonic Knights conquest complete in Eastern Europe.
  • 1253

    Ottokar II the Great

    Ottokar II the Great becomes king of Bohemia. He rules until he dies in battle in 1278.
  • 1261

    Pope Urban IV

    Urban IV becomes pope. He rules the Papal See until 1264.
  • 1291

    Christian Crusades fall

    Muslim armies capture Acre, the last Christian holdings in Palestine. This marks the end of successful crusades.
  • 1300

    Causes of growth from technology from the Global Tapestry

    Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing trade routes, including the Indian Ocean, promoting the growth of powerful new trading cities.
  • 1300

    King Wenceslas II

    King Wenceslas II ascends the throne in Poland.
  • 1306

    Jews expelled

    Philip IV expels the Jews from France.
  • 1327

    Louis IV

    Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV invades Italy and declares Pope John XXII deposed.
  • 1346

    Battle of Crecy

    Battle of Crecy, the first major engagement of the Hundred Years' War. English soldiers defeat a much large number of French under Philip VI near Abbeville in northern France, primarily due to the supremacy of he English and Welsh longbow.
  • 1351

    Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication

    The large empires that emerged in the classical age created massive amounts of goods and became markets for imports.
  • 1375

    Black Plague

    The first version of the black plague breaks out in Western Europe.
  • 1386

    Battle of Sempach

    The Swiss army beat the Austrian army and kill Leopold III of Austria.
  • 1392


    The first dynasty in Korea emerges.
  • 1400

    Muslim Merchants

    Merchants carried goods across these routes during the classical age, facilitated by the domestication of the camel. Many of the items that were exchanged between Egypt and Nubia in the previous period continued across the Sahara (slaves, gold, and ivory.)
  • 1441

    Beginning of portuguese slave trade

    Slaves would be kidnapped and traded from Africa and then brought to Europe or the Americas to work. Most slaves went were taken by the Portuguese to Brazil and then made to work in the sugar plantations. This is an event that's important because of the destructive effects it had on the African population and the culture it created in the Americas, especially in Brazil.
  • 1442

    Christopher's’ First Voyage

    Christophers’ First Voyage was to find a new trading route to Asia. He never found the route he was looking for but instead found America. This then, in turn, lead to the Columbian Exchange and colonization of America. Both events changed the viewpoint of the world showing that the world wasn't flat and there was more to discover.
  • 1450

    The Italian Renaissance

    The Italian Renaissance was a period in Italian history that covered the 15th and 16th centuries, spreading across Europe and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity. Proponents of a "long Renaissance" argue that it began in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century.
  • 1453

    Ottoman Empire took over Constantinople

    Ottoman Empire took over Constantinople; End of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian exchange, also known as the Columbian interchange, named after Christopher Columbus, was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and ideas between the Americas, West Africa, and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
  • 1497

    Vasco de Gama discovers trade route to India

    Vasco da Gama; was a highly successful Portuguese sailor and explorer during the Age of Exploration. He was on a mission to reach India and open a sea route from Europe to the East.
  • 1500

    Indian Ocean Trading Network

    This was a key part in eastern and western exchanges.
  • 1501

    Transatlantic slave trade

    It was a system in which slaves, crops, and manufactured goods were traded between Africa, the Caribbean, and the American colonies. It is an important event because it opened up new ways of transportation and gaining materials. It also gave way for the spread of culture.
    -Triangular Trade
  • 1517

    95 theses

    He believed that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds—was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been advanced before, Martin Luther codified them at a moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided, and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by Luther’s ideas. This also leads to Protestantism.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther

    He soon became convinced that the Catholic Church was opposed to the Bible on the question of justification by grace, through faith, and that no accommodation of his beliefs on this point was possible within the church. Luther concluded that reform of the church had to happen through formation of a new body of Christians. He denied the authority of the pope and many other aspects of Catholic teaching, including the doctrine of transubstantiation.
  • 1517

    Protestant Reformation

    This event is significant because of Christianity, which is a major world religion. It occurred because people didn't approve of the corruption of the Catholic Church. An example is when Martin Luther wrote a book, criticizing the Catholic Church and since the printing press, it was spread all through Europe. Which caused people to make new branches of Christian churches.
  • 1526

    Mughal Empire

    It is a significant empire at the period because it will come to encompass nearly all of the sub-continent of India and the use of artillery and firearms in its invasions.
  • 1543

    The Scientific Revolution

    Intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and the aspects of physics, 17th century that laid the groundwork for modern science.
    − Aristotle
    − Nicholas Copernicus
    − Isaac Newton
    − Galileo Galileif
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent was to reduce the response of the Catholic church to the Protestant Reformation. Church officials would have reliable moral standards plus build schools and seminaries to better teach priests.
  • 1562

    Beginning of British salve trade in Africa

    The British economy was completely transformed by the trading of slaves. In different parts for example financial, commercial, legal and insurance institutions.
    Also, it gave an increase in the production of manufactured goods.
  • Thirty Years War

    Began when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among Protestants. The war came to involve the major powers of Europe, with Sweden, France, Spain and Austria all waging campaigns primarily on German soil
  • Qing dynasty

    They had a centralized government with rigorous civil service exams. Positions were given based off of quality and Confucian ideals were becoming very common again. This was an important dynasty because it restored China to its old traditions and flourishing times.
  • Enlightenment

    A movement that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior. This was a significant time because it opened up the idea of scientific thinking and how to better understand the world, plus how math and science affected the world. − Thomas Hobbes
    − John Locke
    − Voltaire
    − Baron de Montesquieu
    − Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • The Great Awakening

    The First Great Awakening or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s. The revival movement permanently affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion.
  • French and Indian War in North America

    In the early 1750s, France’s expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought it into conflict with the claims of the British colonies, especially Virginia. The French repeatedly beat Britain on the battle field, especially with their indigenous allies that the British couldn't seem to persuade.
  • Seven Years' War

    War caused by a mix of commercial rivalries and political differences. Was a global conflict that took place in Europe, India, Caribbean, and North America that involved both European settlers and the indigenous Asians and Americans. Had deep implications as it set the foundation for 150 years of British imperial hegemony.
  • Captain Jame's Cook exploration of the Pacific Ocean

    In 1766 the Royal Society chose Cook to command the HMS Endeavour on an expedition to the South Pacific to observe a rare transit of Venus across the Sun. The expedition also had a secret motive to search for the fabled southern continent of Terra Australis.
  • American Revolution

    The American Revolution was a war fought by American colonists against their homeland Britain. The war started as the colonists became much more independent and were repeatedly given heavy taxation by the British (Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, and Tea Act.) Gave the colonists there famous motto "No taxation without representation."
  • Establishment of first European colony in Australia

    Europeans only became seriously interested in Australia after James Cook had first visited there, charting the eastern coast near Botany Bay and reported that it was "suitable for habitation." British ships then first arrived there in Sydney carrying 1,000 passengers (800 of whom were convicts) and established the first European settlement there as a penal colony. Free migrants didn't outnumber the criminals until the 1830's.
  • French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789 and ending in 1799.
  • Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti. The revolt began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence.
  • Napoleon's rule in France

    Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century.
  • Decline of Ottoman empire

    Ottoman empire declined for several reasons:
    -Ottoman armies no longer innovative and didn't even have latest weapons. Continued to loose wars and territory.
    -Subject peoples in the Ottoman empires continued to seek autonomy and independence, starting campaigns or wars or of independence.
    -Suffered major territorial losses as Ottomans were forced to recognize new countries, and only kept true heartland: Anatolia and Iraq.
  • War of 1812, Canada

    Rather than tear Canada apart, it actually helped bring it closer together. Ethnic and political divisions before had been separating Canada's two major groups: the R. Catholic, French Canadians and Protestant, British Canadians. But the war gave a sense of unity against an external threat, their neighbor the U.S. who had declared war on Britain for encroachment on U.S. rights during the Napoleonic wars.
  • Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna was an assembly in 1814–15 that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The settlement was the most comprehensive treaty that Europe had ever seen. It was mostly organized by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain, the four powers chiefly instrumental in the overthrow of Napoleon.
  • Opium War (China)

    Trade in opium was illegal in China, but officials never stopped it because they could benefit personally from it. But in China it was beginning to become painfully clear that China had a trade and a drug problem. Drained silver from China and created serious social problems.
  • Mexican- American War

    Westward expansion caused tensions between the U.S. and Mexico, who then controlled Texas, New Mexico, and California. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico, mostly because many U.S. citizens already lived there and wanted to run their own affairs. In 1845, the U.S. accepted Texas as a state and moved to consolidate it, which provoked Mexico and quickly ignited into war.
  • Crimean War

    During the 19th century, Russia expanded in 3 directions- e. into Manchuria, s. into the Caucasus, and sw. into the Balkans. Their intervention into the Balkans was also into the provinces of the Ottoman empire, whom they defeated in a one year war. After, they tried to establish a protectorate over the empire, but this upset the balance of power and were met with a war from a coalition of Britain, France, Sardinia, and the Ottomans.
  • US Civil War (1861-1865) and Reconstruction (1867-1877)

    The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between the northern United States and the southern United States. The civil war began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people.
  • Emancipation of Russian Serfs

    The reform effectively abolished serfdom throughout the Russian Empire. The 1861 Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the domestic (household) serfs. The serfs were emancipated in 1861, following a speech given by Tsar Alexander II on 30 March 1856.
  • Sino- Japanese War

    In 1894, conflict erupted over the status of Korea between Japan and China. An anti-foreign rebellion had broken out in Korea, and both Japan and China feared it would be an inviting target for colonizing powers. So the Qing dynasty sent troops to restore order and assert authority there, but Japan had interests there and declared war on China. Japan came out victorious and startled European powers.
  • Boxer rebellion

    Supported by Chinese empress dowager Cixi, the Boxer Rebellion was a violent, antiforeign movement spearheaded by militia units known as the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Referred to as "Boxers" by the foreign press, they organized to rid China of "foreign devils" and their influences.
  • Spanish- Cuban- American War

    This war was a conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Began with Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain, which began in February 1895.
  • Boer War

    When British came to South Africa in the 1800's, they disrupted Afrikaner society (Dutch settlers that had moved there in the 1600's.) Chafing under British laws and rule, they moved in the "Great Trek" further inward into the interior of South Africa. They created several independent republics that the British was lenient towards, until they found large mineral deposits on there land- gold and diamonds.
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    The Global Tapestry

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    Networks of Exchange

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    Land-Based Empires

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    Transoceanic Interconnections

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    Consequences of Industrialization