Timeline for Russian Revolution

  • Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto
    Revolt for reform following the Russo-Japanese War. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. The uprisings forced the Tsar to implement reforms to please the people. These reforms are seen throughout the October Manifesto. January 22nd 1905 - June 16th 1907. This picture is significant as it shows a demonstration on Bloody Sunday, the start of the revolution.
  • Beginning of WWI

    Beginning of WWI
    Following the assassination of Austria's Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, war breaks out between France, Japan, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, Romania, and the United States (Allied Powers) fighting against Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers). This picture is significant as it shows the use of trench warfare which was highly utilized in WWI
  • Tsar Nicholas II takes sole control of military operations

    Tsar Nicholas II takes sole control of military operations
    Against the cabinet’s opposition, Tsar Nicholas II takes command of the Russian Army. All the opposition for the war and the army is then reflected onto the Tsar, increasing the political opposition against the tsardom. This photo is significant as it shows the Tsar in front of many soldiers who are in attention. This shows his direct power over the military.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    June 4th– September 20th 1916, an incredibly potent offensive campaign by the Russians against the central powers. While this was a strong attack, it causes heavy casualties and crippled the Russian military for later warfare. This image represents the major plans for the Brusilov offensive.
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Rasputin was killed from three gunshot wounds by Felix Yussupov in an attempt to regain the power of the nobles in the Tsardom. Though, his death had only caused further revolution within the peasantry, This photo is significant as it is the corpse of Rasputin.
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    Trotsky brought the groups of factory workers, soldiers, sailors, Cossacks to protect the soviet during the Russian revolution. This image represents the different types of people involved in the red guard.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    Thousands of working women went on strike in Petrograd demanding bread as food was unaffordable due to high inflation rates. They were joined by factory workers, non-working women, and even soldiers loyal to the Tsar. This then led to the start of the February Revolution. This photo is significant as it shows how the Russian citizens worked together for better treatment of all.
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    There were many internal political, social, and economic factors which led to the abdication of the Nicholas II. The army along with the striking workers forced him to abdicate. This picture is significant as it is the letter of abdication from Tsar Nicholas himself.
  • Provisional Government formed

    Provisional Government formed
    Formed in March 2, 1917, after the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. Meant to give Russia a sense of structure while not having a solitary leader. This image shows many of the important figures of the provisional government.
  • Return of Lenin from exile

    Return of Lenin from exile
    Lenin returned after the end of his exile, he would go on to overthrow the provisional government with the Bolsheviks and rise to power in order to set up a more communist state. This image demonstrates Lenin’s position of leadership and his ambitions.
  • April Theses published

    April Theses published
    Lenin’s main points about his promises for Russia, which involved the ending of the first world war, the giving of land to the peasant class, and the nationalization of Russia’s banks. This picture demonstrates the rallying behind Lenin’s ideas and the use of them to gain power.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets
    June 16 – July 7, 1917, the congress of the soviets met with 1090 representatives from the Social Revolutionary party, Menshevik party, Bolshevik party, and others. This image represents the large scale of the meeting, and therefore its importance In Russian history
  • July Days

    July Days
    July 16 – 20, 1917 A period in Russia, where in Petrograd there were protests against the provisional government. The leaders of the Bolshevik party were arrested, as well as the provisional government being reconstructed. This image demonstrates the types of large groups of protestors seen during this time.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    August 27 - September 13, 1917 an attempted coup of the Petrograd soviet and provisional government led by General Lavr Kornilov. This increased the support of the Bolshevik party and decreased support for the provisional government. This image demonstrates Korlinov’s leadership during the time.
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control
    Using promises of “Peace, Bread, and Land” in the April Theses, Lenin won public support and was able to overthrow the provisional government in the October Revolution of 1917. After overthrowing the government, Lenin assumed power while “maintaining” free voting and political discourse. This image highlights the public support Lenin had in his removal of the provisional government.
  • Cheka formed

    Cheka formed
    Formed in December 1917, Lenin created the Cheka, a form of secret police like the Okhrana through which he spread terror. The Cheka was led by Felix Dzerzhinsky and continued to have ties to the Bolshevik party. This image is titled: The sword and shield of the Bolshevik party, which gives insight to the purpose of the Cheka.
  • Wartime Communism created

    Wartime Communism created
    Wartime communism was initiated by Lenin to help consolidate the Soviet during the Russian Civil War. It saw the disbandment of private trade, the introduction of the Vesenkha, and complete control of the economy by the government. Lenin used the Cheka to seize grains from the peasants, ultimately leading to the great famine of 1921. The image is significant as it shows the control that the Reds had over Russia’s workers and economy.
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded 

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded 
    Free voting was guaranteed by the Bolsheviks until Victor Chernov, a right social revolutionary, was elected in January 1918. He opposed all of Lenin’s goals and Lenin removed Chernov and disbanded the assembly. Many civilians protested this action, and Lenin ordered troops to fire, which killed 12. This image highlights Lenin’s authoritative force within the assembly, being above all. This is significant as it shows how Lenin continued to keep power even when Chernov was elected.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Treaty between Russia and Germany in March 3rd 1918. - Signed off 32% of land and lost a majority of industrial land. This image shows how much of valuable land was lost by Russia. All the land was the most agriculturally viable land as well.
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    The Red Terror was a campaign of political oppression used by Lenin. Ordered by the Sovnarkom in 1918, the Cheka were to find, detain, and interrogate “traitors” of Russia. Over 500k political opposers were killed, and many were sent to political prisons. This image accentuates how force was used to coerce the public through the name of cleansing the country. The removal of oppression allowed Lenin to secure his power.
  • Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from   Siberia
    Kolchak, a naval officer during WWI, formed an anti-communist government in Siberia during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. He was recognized as one of the leaders of the whites and led a fight against the Red with his control over the navy. He fought from Nov 18, 1918, to Jan 4, 1918, where he was forced to resign and was executed. This photo represents the naval battle that ensued between Kolchak in Siberia and the Reds.
  • Poles move toward Kiev

    Poles move toward Kiev
    The Kiev Offensive (1920) was an operation in the Polish Chief of State’s plan (Józef Piłsudski) to restore a new order in Eastern Europe with an intended goal to seize control of central and Eastern Ukraine. This offensive has been noted as the starter of the Soviet-Polish War. This picture is significant as it displays Polish Troops advancing in Kiev in 1920 and displays the courage and willingness of the Polish goals in the Kiev Offensive.
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

    Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    Also referred to as the Battle of Warsaw, was when Red Army forces approached the Polish Capital of Warsaw as part of a counterattack to the Kiev Offensive. The Red army was unsuccessful as the Polish forces led by Pilsudski counterattacked the Reds resulting in the Red Army’s unorganized retreat dealing a significant loss to the Reds. This picture displays Polish Troops advancing towards the front in Warsaw to combat the Reds and underlines the force and organization of the Polish victors.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    The Tambov Rebellion was a peasant organized rebellion that challenged the Bolshevik leadership in Russia during the Civil War. It was started as resistance to policies in Russia such as War Communism and the forced confiscation of excess grains/produce, and the overall distaste for the Bolshevik’s unkept promises resulting in famine. This picture displays the courage and willingness of peasants, even with the limited materials and resources they had, to combat the Bolshevik regime.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    The government of the Soviet Union was formed on December 30th, 1922 with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian republics. This photo displays Lenin on the day of the establishment of the Soviet Union. This is significant as it displays the success of Lenin and the Bolshevik Regime to grasp power throughout Russia and successfully obtain influence.
  • The Kronstadt Rebellion

    The Kronstadt Rebellion
    The Kronstadt Rebellion was an insurrection of soviet sailors and civilians against the Bolshevik regime. The rebellion was started as the disappointment in the Bolshevik government and demanded a reduction of Bolshevik influence in the government, economic freedom for workers, and rights for working classes. This picture displays Kronstadt marines during the uprising and their commitment with the ammunition wrapped around themselves to combat the Bolsheviks, despite their inevitable loss.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    War Communism was an economic system in Russia by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War to consolidate power. Policies included the nationalization of all industry, state control of trade, strict control of work force, rationing food, etc. War communism was ended on March 21st, 1921 and replaced by the New Economic Policy. This picture displays the Famine that occurred from War Communism; this picture enhances the harsh policies War communism placed on citizens in Russia.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    The Ukranian War of Independence was from 1917 to 1921 which did result in the formation of a republic, but they became a part of the Soviet Union in 1922. The Ukrainian People's Republic was not recognized by Russia's soviet government during the Russian Revolution. The Rada, Ukraine's military force, had limited armed force and was easily taken over by the Bolsheviks. The protesters highlight the unjust taking of Ukraine, which was despised by the public.
  • The Treaty of Rapallo

    The Treaty of Rapallo
    The Treaty of Rapallo was signed on April 16th, 1922 and was an agreement between the German Republic and Russia. It renounced all territory and financial claims that were held against each other after World War I. This picture displays members from the German and Russian delegations meeting to sign the Treaty of Rapallo which highlights their mutual respect and dignity the nations hold.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    Lenin died on January 21st, 1924 as a result of a brain hemorrhage at the age of 54. After his death, Stalin took control as his successor of the ruling communist party and Soviet Union. This image shows the funeral service of Vladimir Lenin. This image is significant as his funeral was attended by everyone besides Leon Trotsky because Stalin gave him the incorrect date for the funeral (purposefully) and ultimately shows the shift in power to the new authoritarian leader, Joseph Stalin.