russian revolution, civil war, and lenin

By ikagai
  • 1905 Revolution and October Manifesto

    1905 Revolution and October Manifesto
    Started with Bloody Sunday when troops opened fire on a crowd of workers peacefully petitioning their economic grievances. 200 died + 800 wounded; tsar did not address the claims -> disdain for the government. Increases in strikes led to the implementation of the October Manifesto -> created the elected State Duma; beginning to move from autocracy into democracy. The picture chosen was a rendition of Bloody Sunday, highlighting the extent of the brutality.
  • Beginning of WW1

    Beginning of WW1
    Characterised by great unity amongst Russians. Homefront = war front (in terms of importance), Russians were able to feel a sense of community and unity; fought against common enemies for a common goal. Autocracy was strengthened. The picture depicts Russian mobilisation, which is significant as it put them in an advantageous position against Germany’s Schlieffen Plan.
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control
    Led by Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks launched a revolutionary attack against the PG -> took control over government buildings + areas around the Petrograd capital to form their one-party state and dominate with a Bolshevik Russia. Invading the Winter Palace, Bolsheviks sneaked in + arrested many PG leaders, --> organization eventually collapsed + Lenin began nationalizing Russia’s economy and industry. The picture chosen shows Lenin's immense influence, leading to his success
  • Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations

    Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations
    Russia's war losses broke sense of unity -> spurred Tsar Nicholas II to personally command the front lines. victories under the tsar = citizens to trust the tsardom, but Tsar faced just as many losses; losses were now associated with the tsardom (^anger) Tsarina Alexandra + Rasputin (unqualified) in control (Rasputin promoted nepotism, and Alexandra followed Rasputin) -> worsened tsardom's impressions. The picture is significant as it shows when Tsardom lost political control over the citizens.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    The Brusilov Offensive occurred from June to September of 1916. It was the largest & most successful offensive in terms of securing enemy territory that the Allies performed in World War I. The event marked one of the high points in Russia's wartime efforts The picture chosen shows the strategy behind the offensive, showing the geographical (+political) reasoning behind why the offensive was so effective.
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Rasputin’s relationship with the monarchy damaged its prestige. Because of the belief that he had too much influence over the tsar and tsaritsa, was tarnishing their reputation, and stirring up resentment amongst the public towards the monarchy, he was murdered by three nobles in a coup d’état to create a change in leadership that could prevent a revolt. The picture chosen is a political cartoon representing Rasputin's influence in the tsardom
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meet

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meet
    The first All-Russian Congress of Soviets happened in June of 1917. The Bolsheviks had 105 delegates (which was fewer than the Mensheviks with 248 and Social revolutionaries with 285 but still shows that the Bolsheviks had gained support by many Russians). The picture shows the first meeting, implemented to discuss the working class's (one of the biggest in Russia) desires in order to gain more support.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meet

    The first All-Russian Congress of Soviets happened in June of 1917. The Bolsheviks had 105 delegates (which was fewer than the Mensheviks with 248 and Social revolutionaries with 285 but still shows that the Bolsheviks had gained support by many Russians). The picture shows the first meeting, implemented to discuss the working class's (one of the biggest in Russia) desires in order to gain more support.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    Attempt to overthrow PG -> headed by the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers + Aleksander Kerensky. Kerensky appointed Kornilov commander-in-chief of the Russian Army -> mobilise troops to Petrograd + address revolutionary threat. Ultimate goal = restore peace in Petrograd -> shows there was present resentment towards the current government as well as their involvement in WW1. The picture shows the amount of opposition against the PG, showing the vast resentment amongst Russian citizens.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    Militant women marched through Petrograd to protest poor economic and social conditions Russian people experienced during WW1. Others joined the march; chaos, looting + rioting ensued. Tsar Nicholas II was informed of the situation by Mikhail Rodzianko
    -> ordered the military to regain control (demonstration -> revolution) Soldiers mutinied + Nicholas agreed to abdicate (Feb. 28) The photo depicts protestors, showing the scale of the opposition towards tsardom.
  • Nicholas Abdicates

    Nicholas Abdicates
    Following the demonstrations in Petrograd, Rodzianko set up a provisional committee of the Duma to take over + demanded Tsar Nicholas to abdicate in hopes of alleviating the chaos that had ensued. Military officers were persuaded to press Nicholas to abdicate. When Nicholas returned from the military base, the Duma representatives told him about the chaos + bloodshed -> he decided to abdicate for the people. The picture chosen shows Nicholas officially abdicating, marking the end of tsardom.
  • Provisional Government Formed

    Provisional Government Formed
    The provisional committee of the Duma appointed ministers to make the new provisional government (PG). Ministers appointed = several political parties + statuses (liberals, moderate socialists, constitutional democrats, landowners, industrialists etc) Appointed chairman = Prince Georgi Lvov. PG = self-elected + made up of previous higher-class tsardom supporters; seen as un-democratic + untrustworthy by working/middle class. Photo = first members of the PG -> important, shows class difference
  • Return of Lenin from Exile

    Return of Lenin from Exile
    Lenin returned to Petrograd from Switzerland with the aid of the Germans who believed his return would cause chaos and affect the Russian war effort. Many soldiers and workers were excited about his return because they believed he would ensure that Lenin would ensure that their needs were met. The picture shows Lenin's return. The people are joyous at his retune, signifying his great influence over the people.
  • April Theses Published

    April Theses Published
    Lenin believed proletarian revolution could be achieved + Russia could skip bourgeois/liberal phase -> straight to socialism. The April Theses = Lenin’s manifesto, encouraging soviets to overthrow the PG. + Promised an end to war, land for peasants, food supplies for towns, (“Peace, bread, land,”) -> appealing to citizen's wants, Bolsheviks won over workers, peasants + soldiers. The picture shows Lenin speaking to the citizens about his Peace, Bread, + Land plan, showing his influence on them.
  • July Days

    July Days
    On the 3rd of July 1917, Bolshevik army units joined other protestors in the streets and demanded the war’s end and power to the soviets. The riots were referred to as ‘the July Days’ and were not organized by the Bolsheviks, but Bolshevik leaders were still blamed for it. The Prada (Bolshevik newspaper) was closed down. After the July Days, the Bolshevik party was officially banned. The picture shows the brutality of the riots, giving justification as to why the Bolsheviks were banned.
  • Cheka formed

    Cheka formed
    The Cheka (Soviet secret police) formed to establish fear in Russia’s citizens + eradicate opposition. First led by Dzerzhinsky, the local Cheka operated independently + shot anyone. Amount of opposition towards Bolshevik ^^, power of the Cheka ^^.~500,000 people shot by Cheka (victims = tsar + family -> suspected ‘class enemies’ ) Enforced grain requisitioning + executed black marketeers, hoarders and speculators The photo shows the brutality of the Cheka as a harbinger of death.
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    Directly as a consequence of the Kornilov Affair, Leon Trotsky organizes the Red Guard to defend the city of Petrograd from invasion + as a means to prevent any military coup or counter-revolution from occurring. Mostly consisted of armed factory workers, very loosely organized, + were completely independent from political parties and the PG. The picture displays the Red Guards, lacking a uniform, which show the lack of organisation within the group.
  • Wartime Communism created

    Wartime Communism created
    Introduced by Lenin -> economic policy during Russian Civil War period. Believed Bolsheviks should control + direct all production to help fight civil war -> centralized command economy w/ private trade + manufacturing forbidden. Grain requisitioning forced upon peasants + strict labor discipline (workers punished for tardiness) Many died from hunger. Lenin thought policy was necessary for victory in war -> ended w/ massive opposition. Picture shows the awful state peasants were in from policy
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    Socialist Revolutionary Party won the majority of the seats @ Constituent Assembly (CA) election. Bolsheviks + Left Socialist Revolutionaries argued mandate = invalid. Constituent Assembly convened again + did not recognize authority of Soviet govt. + disbanded. Previously supporting CA, Bolsheviks shifted mindset + attacked elected deputies. Lenin view = unrepresentative + the SRs split (not able to form voting majority) The picture shows the meeting + the beginning of Bolshevik's takeover.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Between Soviet Russia + Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria + Ottoman Empire). Russia recognized independence of many states (e.g. Ukraine, Georgia, + Finland) + marked the end of Russia’s participation in WW1. Ceded Baltic States to Germany + agreed to pay six billion German gold marks in reparations. Russian nationalists = furious Bolsheviks accepted treaty + joined forces to fight them. The picture shows the extent of land loss, highlighting the harshness of the treaty.
  • Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia
    Alexander Kolchak, the supreme commander of the Whites, worked with the white opposition in an attempt to fight the Reds and Bolshevik government on March 4, 1918. He defeated several Red armies and advanced towards Moscow to fight Lenin and the Bolsheviks. The picture is of Kolchak, one of the threats to Bolshevik power.
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    Established as campaign of political repression + mass killings from Bolsheviks during Russian Civil War to enforce government and rid of any opposition or threat to the Bolshevik power. Carried out by Red Army + Cheka -> targeted SRs, executing + driving them into exile + labor camps. Also targeted White Army (main opposition) in public executions + shootings to instill fear + power. The picture depicts the brutal nature and terror in an attempt to maintain power.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    The Tambov Rebellion lasted during the years of 1919 - 1921 and became known as the largest peasant rebellion ever faced by the Bolshevik party during the Civil War. It had been in response to the newly formed policy of grain requisitioning and was led by the Social Revolutionaries. Through indiscriminate and unethical tactics, the Red Army and their commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky suppressed the uprising. The picture shows the geographical spread of the rebellion showing it's large-scale.
  • Poles move to Kiev

    Poles move to Kiev
    Offensive put together by president of Ukrainian People’s Republic Symyon Petliura + Poland’s head of state Józef Piłsudski to recapture city of Kiev which Ukraine had lost to Bolsheviks. Alliance formed on basis of exchanging established border for military help w/ regaining Kiev. Initially successful but faced a massive counteroffensive (06/13) led to Kiev evacuation and Soviet control. The picture shows a propaganda poster harshly opposing the alliance, showing attempt to dissuade the public
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

     Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    During Polish-Soviet War, decisive victory won by Polish during the Battle of Warsaw. Desperate Polish counterattack based on cutting off lines of communication overwhelmed the Red Army and led to surrender. This event ultimately helped the Polish win the war and gain new territory from peace terms agreed upon by Lenin. The photo shows Polish soldiers holding up captured Soviet battle flags following their victory, showing their unity against the opposition.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    Wartime Communism brought about period of economic failure + social unrest ->famine, disease, + death went up exponentially. Peasants + workers alike protesting against harsh measures placed on economic freedoms + working conditions enforced brutally. Led to lack of support for Bolshevik party + working relationship b/w rural + urban areas. War Communism abolished + replaced w/ New Economic Policy. The picture shows views of pro-Communists when NEP was implemented (“long live the Red Terror”)
  • Kronstadt uprising

    Kronstadt uprising
    A rebellion led by sailors at the Kronstadt naval base. These former supporters of the October Revolution chose to revolt by demanding an end to the harsh measures of War Communism and a one-party dictatorship. In the end, the Red Army and Cheka units were sent to brutally suppress them. The picture depicts the Red Army shelling soldiers, symbolising the cruel brutality + attempt to maintain power by force.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    Signed on April 16, 1922, the Treaty of Rapallo occurred between Germany and Russia to resume diplomatic relations through the renouncement of monetary and territorial claims. This increased the security of both states and led to them becoming mutual trading partners. This relationship continued to last for 10 years. The picture shows the agreement, signifying Russia's return + acceptance in the global political sphere.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    After WW1, lands east of the Polish border came under Bolshevik rule + were organized into Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. Bolshevik govt helped Ukraine form Soviet govt, declare independence, +adopt constitution (to combat rising nationalism). Bolshevik strength ^^ = Soviet Ukraine’s concessions in foreign relations + trade ^^. Led to joining Union of Soviet Socialist Republics + becoming constituent republic. The picture shows Ukraine's involvement with the USSR.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    Made through the unification of Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian + Byelorussian republics. Main goal of this one-party state = follow ideology of communism w/ centralized command economy under dictatorship of proletariat + w/ hopes of spreading ideals globally. Its creation signified an official group for communism, which brought fear to Western Europe and America to its potential outreach. The photo shows the official USSR flag, providing organisation + official recognition of the republic.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    On January 21, 1924, Vladimir Lenin died as a result of a series of strokes which partially resulted from previous injuries. After his first stroke, Lenin created his Testament which stated his intentions for Future Russia, although it was never officially acknowledged by the Bolshevik party. The picture show's Lenin's will (specifically his opposition for putting Stalin in power) which was ignored, showing the attempt to suppress Lenin even in death.