Rural russia

Russian Revolution/Civil War- Lenin's Russia

  • Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto
    An uprising against the tsarist autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II that led to the implementation of a constitutional monarchy in Russia. The main causes for the uprising were dissatisfaction with the tyrrany of the tsar and the loss of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 to Japan. This photo was chosen because it illustrates the Battle of Potemkin, which is widely considered one of the first steps that led to the beginning of the Russian Revolution.
  • Beginning of WW I

    Beginning of WW I
    The long term causes of an increase in alliances and nationalism alongside the desire to militarize and imperialize heightened by the assisination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in June 1914, led to total war. Austria-Hungary was the first country to declare war on Serbia following Serbia’s rejection of Austria’s ultimatum. This photo was chosen because it illustrates the widespread impact of the assasination, which is widely credited as the final step that led to WW1
  • Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations

    Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations
    Czar Nicholas II left St. Petersburg in hopes of inspiring his troops to fight with renewed enthusiasm and determination. However, his lack of military experience combined with increasing starvation, lack of military materials, and a deteriorating military alongside weak leadership in Russia led people to blame the Czar for Russia’s deterioration. This photo was chosen because it displays Czar Nicholas II on the front lines alongside a military commander during one of the battles in WW1.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    Russian offensive headed by Aleksei Brusilov on Russia's eastern front resulting in largest Allie/Russian victory and most lethal war effort of WWI with between 1-2 million casualties across Eurpoean nations. This picture demonstrates the Brusilov Offensive as this is Brusilov himself. The mastermind behind the whole extent of the win against German's and the Entente's Offensive.
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Grigori Rasptuin was despised by many Russians as he was seen as a puppeteer of the czarist family and served as the czarista’s personal advisor while czar Nicholas II led military operations. Consequently, Felix Yussupov poisoned, shot, and drowned Rasputin in hopes of restoring the prestigious czarist autocracy. This photo was chosen because it illustrates the great power Rasputin has over the czarist family along with his desire to enhance his power through aggression.
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    Karensky feared Kornilov Affair's power, so Karensky then got Trotsky and others out of prision to organize Soviet Red Guard troops against rioters and defend Petrograd. This picture represents the harm the red guard caused to petrograd society. They instilled much fear and terror within Petrograd through the extent of violence they enforced to stop the growing advocation against the Provisional Government.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    Textile working women went on strike in Petrograd with demands of ending food shortages, tarism, and the war. The following day, workers, students, and military troops joined while government officials were arrested and the czar was told to abdicate. This image displays the vastness of protesters and their desire to influence the government and warn officials of their poor living conditions.
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    Government officials advised the czar to abdicate following the International Women’s Day protests. He renounced his throne to his brother who refused to get involved within the czarist regime. This ended the almost 400 year long Romanov dynasty. This image was chosen as it displays Nicholas II following his abdication, taken captive and sent into hiding with his family.
  • Provisional Government formed

    Provisional Government formed
    The Provisional Government was formed by the duma following the czar’s abdication and led until the Bolshevik coup. It heightened political opposition by drawing lines between liberals and conservatives. Although there were some changes like increased women’s rights and censorship removal, the country remained in the war. This image was chosen because it exhibits the provisional government and expresses the increased division of power as more citizens take part in the government.
  • Return of Lenin from exile

    Return of Lenin from exile
    With the help of German officials who hoped Valdimir Lenin would increase instability and leave the war, Lenin returned from Switzerland after meeting other social democrats following his exile. Upon his arrival, he began to lead the Bolshevik party and called for a communist government led by the working class. This photo was chosen as it displays the route Lenin took while onboard the "sealed train" which left Zurich, crossed Germany, traveled the Baltic Sea by ferry and ended in Russia.
  • April Theses Published

    April Theses Published
    At the April Bolshevik conference, Lenin presented his theses with his famous promise of “peace, bread, and land”. This promise boosted Bolshevik support and helped gain momentum for the October revolution. This photo was chosen as it illustrates the main ideas of the theses alongside Lenin’s promise, which is widely considered one of the major factors that led to increased Bolshevik support and the desire to overthrow the provisional government.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets Meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets Meets
    This congress consisted of majority Mensheviks and Social-Revolutionists. Lenin took this as an opportunity to express Bolshevik ideas; however, his proposals were rejected. It was a crucial step towards democracy as it represented the ideas of all people. They discussed topics including war, food, and local governments. This image was chosen because it displays the congress while exemplifying the abundance of participants and insinuating the grand spread of ideology.
  • July Days

    July Days
    A series of days of riots and demonstrations by soldiers, industrial workers, and women in the streets of Petrograd to voice dislike of Russia's Provisional Government. This picture represents the extent of discipline and advocation large populations in Russia had for the change they desired in society and their government. Despite terror and forces used, populations knew the risks and sacrificed their lives to riot against a system that many had zero faith in.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    Attempted military coup lead by General Kornilov against Provisional Government that failed, incarcerating Kornilov along with other conspirators and crumbling favorable opinions of the Provisional Government in the process. This picture represents the Kornilov Affair through these men being part of the brute forces behind the whole coup. Despite the failure, prior to, the men were standing tall showing their own power and dedication towards a cause that they knew could likely incarcerate them.
  • Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Government and take control
    Revolutionary workers and soldiers headed by Vladimir Lenin led an insurrection coup against the Provisional Government that was essentially bloodless and led the Provisional Government surrendered to Soviet Bolshevik rule led by Marxist Lenin. This picture represents the large following Lenin had in his persuit to overthrow the Provisional Government. The town is packed with people, demonstrating how many advocated for the transition of power and for the Bolsheviks to take control.
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    First free elections of Russia. Lenin, by much surprise and aggitation, trailed behind Socialist-Revolutionary, Viktor Chernov in elections allowing SR majority of seats. Mad, Bolshevik guards stormed Assembly killing 12 and with Lenin at side, took down Constituent Assembly leaving Bolsheviks the ruling party of Russia. This picture represents the legitamacy of the election system prior to Lenin's anger and repulsion of the results, questioning how Lenin got his way in the first place.
  • Cheka Formed

    Cheka Formed
    Bolshevik secret police installed to spread fear and violence throughout Russia. Dealt specifically with anit-Bolsheviks and political opposition suppressing any media, people, or places that could spread negativity about the new government system or kill those that would not follow orders and government ideals. This picture shows the legitamacy and seriousness of the Cheka in society. Them dressed in normal clothes articulates how they blended in to society making them even scarier.
  • Wartime Communism Created

    Wartime Communism Created
    Lenin's attempt to stabilize government and economy after years of harsh war. Governmnet controlled railways, food, fleets, factories, and industry. Society paid in ration tokens (no physcial money, people only got what was necessary). Private trade/manufacturing illegal, food-supply dictatorship, black-trade market, famine, resource shortages, Chekas, Kulaks, no foreign trade. Shows seriousness of danger society was in due to wartime communism and how it hurt more than helped Russian society.
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    Political repression and fear of opposition created by Bolshevik loyalists and government instilled by the Cheka to ensure anyone who oppossed the government was killed, imprisoned, or exciled. Red terror also maintained positive propoganda and put censorship on anything against the communist movement. Picture demonstrates total fear society had from Bolsheviks. Having this in ones backyard shows that communist are not messing around and that one better get on board or will get run over/killed.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Armistice from Russia to Germany to get out of WWI. Harsh reparations on Russia making them lose 1/6 population, 1/3 agriculture, 1/4 railways, and 3/4 iron production on Western front through Germany taking territories. This picture demonstrates the lack of respect and care Germany had for Russia. Despite stipulation of the later Versailles, this political cartoon expresses that Germany truly took the whole wellbeing of Russia and didn't look back, expressing the hardship Bols/Russia faced.
  • Kolchak begins Serious Attacks Against the Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak begins Serious Attacks Against the Reds from Siberia
    Alexander Kolchak, a Russian admiral during Tsar Nicholas II’s rule, began his Spring Offensive against the communist leaders of Russia with the White Army. His attack in Siberia successfully pushed the Red Army out of the region, and garnered success for the Whites. This image was chosen due to its relation to Kolchak's involvement in the Russian Civil War, as it depicts Kolchak leading an army of soldiers into battle.
  • Poles Move Towards Kiev

    Poles Move Towards Kiev
    The Kiev Offensive, led by Polish Chief of State Josef Pilsudski, was a major battle between the Poles and the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War. During this battle, the Poles defeated the Soviet Socialist Republics of Ukraine and Russia, however, shortly thereafter they were defeated by the Red Army in a counter-offensive in May 1920.
    This image was chosen as it depicts Josef Pilsudski, the most prominent figure in the Kiev Offensive, and leader of the Poles following WWI.
  • Soviets Attempt to Take Warsaw

    Soviets Attempt to Take Warsaw
    Russian Cossacks, led by Mikhail Tukhachevsky, invaded Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, in an attempt to stop the Poles from invading Russia. This attempt was eventually thwarted by Pilsudski and the Russian army, who resisted this initial attack.
    This image depicts Polish soldiers holding Soviet war flags during this Battle at Warsaw, which illustrates the intense morale of the Polish troops and the failure of the Soviet army to invade Warsaw.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    In response to the growing restrictions on trade and agricultural requisitioning by the Cheka, peasant farmers started a revolt against the Bolshevik government. This tactic led to the eventual victory of the peasants, and the defeat of the Red Army, much to the dismay of the Bolsheviks, who actively suppressed the movement.
    This image demonstrates the peasant uprising in Tambov, which is significant as it illustrates the growing resentment of the working class against the Bolsheviks.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    After many rebellions against the Bolsheviks due to the oppressive nature of War Communism, Lenin replaced the economic policy with the NEP, a more capitalistic economy, which in theory would afford workers and farmers more opportunity to have food and basic necessities.
    This image depicts the NEP's reestablishment of currency in the Russian economy, which is important as it is the most defining factor of War Communism that limited citizens from buying food and goods to survive.
  • Kronstadt Uprising

    Kronstadt Uprising
    The sailors at Kronstadt were initially in favor of Lenin's proposal for Russia to become a communist state during the initial stages of the Russian Revolution. However, after experiencing the tyranny of the Bolsheviks during their reign, they began a revolt against the government. After the revolt's suppression, Lenin enacted the NEP, in order to calm tensions about War Communism.
    This image depicts the most notable symbol and illustration of the Kronstadt Rebellion.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    The Treaty of Rapallo established a connection between Bolshevik Russia and Germany, which ensured that Germany would work inside of Russia to innovate their militaries, which was a direct breach of the Treaty of Versailles.
    This image shows the "spirit of Rapallo" which was said to be gained from the newfound relations between Russia and Germany, which improved the morale of many Europeans following WWI.
  • Ukraine Brought Under Soviet Control

    Ukraine Brought Under Soviet Control
    Due to rising Ukrainian nationalism, the country was placed under Bolshevik rule. Under this agreement, the Ukrainian Government had no control over the military, foreign relations, and trade. The image above depicts the Ukrainian SSR flag, which displays the mix between the new Bolshevik control and the Ukrainian government in its blend of the two flags.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    The USSR was a collection of states under communist rule, in which the economies and governments of each state were intertwined. Lenin remained the leader of this republic until his death, and following his passing, Joseph Stalin gained power.
    This image depicts the expansive nature of the USSR, as it covered from Eastern Europe all the way to the Pacific Ocean. This illustrates the far-reaching power of the Bolsheviks following WWI, and their ability to garner support for their cause.
  • Lenin Dies

    Lenin Dies
    Following Vladimir Lenin’s death from medical complications, his body was placed in Lenin’s Tomb located on the Red Square in the center of Moscow. Lenin’s death insinuated a power struggle ending with Joseph Stalin obtaining power and enforcing a repressive totalitarian government while abandoning much of Lenin’s work like the NEP. This photo was chosen because it exemplifies the notion that Lenin's death was monumental world wide and led to worldwide concern over Russia's future.