Russian Revolution, Civil War, and Lenin

  • Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto
    The Revolution of 1905 lasted from January 22, 1905 to June 16, 1907 and was a wave of mass social and political unrest throughout Russia. The October Manifesto was a statement from Tsar Nicholas II from October, 1905 and immediately shifted the Russian Government from complete autocracy to a monarchy. Picture shows 1905 Revolution and contrasts the organized Russian military and the disorganized, yet contained, Russian public.
  • Beginning of WWI

    Beginning of WWI
    The beginning of WWI is highly debated among historians, but it is often recognized that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand increased tensions throughout Europe, thereby causing WWI. WWI lasted from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918, and introduced alternative forms of warfare including trench warfare, nuclear warfare, etc. Picture is the logo of the Black Hand, the organization that assassinated Archduke Frans Ferdinand, thereby sparking WWI.
  • Tzar Nicholas II takes Sole Control of Military Operations

     Tzar Nicholas II takes Sole Control of Military Operations
    In 1915, Tsar Nicholas II leaves Tsarina Alexandra back at home (and in control) while he moves to the war front in Russian Poland with the idea that he would motivate troops to raise morale and fight. Tsar Nicholas II is pictured out of his home in Russia. He left in the interest of rising troop morale for the war.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    Led under General Aleksey Brusilov, it was the largest Russian offensive during WWI against Austria-Hungary. However, due to the heavy casualties, Russia was never able to repeat the success. Ended August 10th, 1916. This picture shows trenches and developed technology such as barbed wire to demonstrate the difficulty of this war and the heavy casualties of the assault.
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Rasputin was a close friend of the Tsar and Tsarina and found great influence, not only over them, but also over the Russian public. He was assassinated in 1916, and due to his large stature (6’4”), it took poison, 3 bullets, and beatings to kill him, but only killed him after drowning him following the former. This picture was chosen because it shows the influence and popularity Rasputin held in Russia.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    International Women's Day protests in Petrograd triggered the revolution that led to Tsar Nicholas II's abdication. An International Women's Day march in the Russian capital of Petrograd began the protests which brought about the Russian Revolution This picture was chosen because it reflects the vast amount of women at this march and shows the amount of support that women had, and would continue to through the revolution.
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    In February 1917, strikes in Petrograd led to a demonstration and Cossack soldiers refused the Tsar's orders to fire on demonstrators. Nicholas' loss of support and weakening leadership led to his abdication. This picture was chosen because it shows how significant of an event it was, that it was worldwide news, even in the US.
  • Provisional Government formed

    Provisional Government formed
    The provisional government was established immediately following the abdication of Nicholas II. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. This picture is not only the actual flag of the Russian Provisional government, but it symbolizes the two branches, the military and the state duma.
  • Return of Lenin from Exile

    Return of Lenin from Exile
    From the help of German Intelligence, Lenin alongside other revolutionaries discreetly return to Petrograd, Russia after years of exile in a sealed train. The Soviet-era painting depicts Lenin and his Bolsheviks arriving at Finland Station in Petrograd, greeted by an enormous crowd as he descends from the train, signifying the start of a dramatic shift of events for Russia.
  • April Theses Published

    April Theses Published
    Lenin’s April Theses published on April 17, 1917, is a document containing ten points that includes the condemnation of the provisional government, a call for a socialist revolution, and the subsequent actions needed to take for the communist party and working class in Russia. In the picture, Lenin is delivering his April Theses at a Bolshevik Party meeting in the Tauride Palace in Petrograd on April 17, 1917.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets
    The First All-Russian Congress of Soviets was the first national meeting attended by both national representatives and lower classes respectfully that debated on the implementation of social, economic, and political policies and resolutions. In this picture, a session of the Congress is being held, signifying a new period of economic, social, and political change and unity for Russia.
  • July Days

    July Days
    Workers and soldiers marched down to Petrograd and staged an armed demonstration against the provisional government. This demonstration lasted all the way up to July 20th of the same month. While Bolsheviks initially disapproved of the protest, they soon joined it in support. The picture demonstrates the many lives lost during this demonstration and the force it took to be heard by the government in order to attempt to make a change for the better.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    Returning from the Hungarian prisoner-of-war-camp, Lavr Kornilov was against the Petrograd Soviet’s breakdown of discipline within the army. Gathering recruits, Kornilov ordered the march to Petrograd on August 27th, lasting until September 13th. Bolsheviks showed to be the victors against this revolt. This picture resembles the gathering of soldiers and how much armory it took to demonstrate this revolt against the government. Important to show the stakes through weapons.
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    Leon Trotsky organized the Red Guard in order to defend the government that replaced Tsar Nicholas II’s rule when he abdicated. The Red Guard was used to seize control from the Provisional Government in November 1917. This date is very relative as it is based on the creation of the Committee for Struggle Against Counterrevolution. The picture shows Trotsky with the Red Guard showing that he led the power within the nation through the army.
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take contro

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take contro
    As an event often known as the October Revolution of 1917, with the help of Trotsky’s Red Guard, Lenin used force to take over the Provisional Government after taking over many buildings in Petrograd and surrounding officials meeting in a building. This picture shows the force Lenin used to take over the Provisional Government and his strong support in violence in order to create political change in Russia as it shows his lack of desire to do otherwise.
  • Cheka Formed

    Cheka Formed
    The Cheka was a secret police organization made by Vladimir Lenin to eliminate political opposition as well as assert control over the Russian People through force and terror. This picture depicts the unrightful, dirty nature and actions of the Cheka, or at least how many viewed them to be. It shows how the Cheka was only made to kill those who opposed Lenin and keep his power, not caring about deaths and violence as long as there was control.
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    An assembly made to remake the Russian Constitution after Russian Civilians expressed their desire for change. After an election for who would lead the Assembly, the Bolsheviks did not win and Vladimir Lenin used force to stop the assembly. This picture shows the overarching force of Lenin in constituent assembly as he is shown in the centerstage in the middle. This is significant in showing how Lenin never planned for there to be an election as he would have taken over anyways unless he won.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    A peace treaty signed by the new Bolshevik Government in Russia and the Central Powers in order for Russia to leave WWI. It caused Russia to have to pay a lot of money and give a lot of its land to Germany as a result. This picture signifies the way the new Bolshevik Government felt towards the treaty, showing their belief that the Central Powers took too much from them as it was too harsh.
  • Wartime Communism Created

    Wartime Communism Created
    Wartime Communism was an economic system which the Bolshevik Government put strict economic and political control over their citizens to supply the resources needed for the Reds to win the Russian Civil War. This picture shows Russian citizens doing labor while a military official overlooked them. This illustrates the strict conditions of Wartime Communism as the government controlled what every citizen did, unless they were in the military. Extra: Exact date made in June not known.
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    Red Terror was a campaign made by the Bolshevik government to assert fear into Russian Civilians and create control to win the Russian Civil War. This was mainly done through the Cheka which killed those who opposed the government. It ended in 1922. This picture has a skeleton in a red outfit, looming over a city in Russia. This skeleton is meant to represent Red Terror and the fear around it, demonstrating how it was seen as a big source of terror in Russia that it seemed to loom everywhere.
  • Kolchak begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia
    Kolchak, the major military general for the whites during the Russian Civil War, devised a series of major attacks against the Reds from Siberia. This picture depicts Kolchak inspecting his troops during the Russian Civil War. This picture represents the authority and power that Kolchak had with the whites, which many don’t view the whites as. It shows how significant he was compared to other generals.
  • Poles move toward Kiev

    Poles move toward Kiev
    The uprisings in Russia distracted Leon Trotsky, leaving Ukraine defenseless. This allowed for Piludsky to gather 65,000 Polish and 15,000 Ukrainian troops to lead a Kiev Expedition. Overall largely influenced by Symyon Petliura’s campaign to preserve a Ukrainian independent state. The picture portrays the gruesome weapons taken to Kiev; representing that this took careful planning and time to gather forces for this movement into Kiev.
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

    Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    Battle of Warsaw that ended on August 25th of 1920. Red army forces marched to the Polish capital (Warsaw). The Polish counteroffensive on August 16th led to the withdrawal of the Russian army. Russian fatalities doubled that of Polish ones and 66,000 Russian troops were taken prisoner. The picture portrays the difficult fight that came from an unexpected counterattack, showing the evenness of the soldier troops and the chaos that resulted from the war itself.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    The rebellion started with peasants’ refusal to the confiscation of grain; eventually leading to guerilla warfare against the Red Army, Cheka, and Soviet Russian authorities. About 100,000 people were arrested and 15,000 shot dead during the suppression of the revolt. Ended sometime in June 1921. The togetherness of the soldiers in the photo as well as the clear use of weapons shows how the rebellion was one of the most organized in its time and gathered a lot of support.
  • Kronstadt Uprising

    Kronstadt Uprising
    The Kronstadt uprising took place by the sailors that fought for the Red Army in the Civil War and through their families saw the cruelty that their families experienced by the Bolsheviks. Lenin succeeded in stopping the rebellion on March 17th through force and torture. This photo accurately represents the rebellion as it translates to “Death to the Bourgeoisie” by the sailors holding up the flag, showing their anger towards the Bolsheviks.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    Due to the lack of food production caused by War Communism and the famine it caused in 1921, Lenin decided on replacing it with the New Economic Policy after the Civil War.
    Extra info if needed: The picture presents Lenin as the savior when he changed out War Communism for the NEP and made the people happier through solving the lack of food within the economy.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    A secret treaty made in April 1922 with Germany. It agreed to cancel debts between Russia and Germany, increase trade, and have military cooperation between the countries. Gerogi Chicherin helped make the treaty. The photo represents the standard agreement between authorities that took place in order for the treaty to happen. Represents international affairs between the nations.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    The joining of Ukraine to the USSR. This happened because Ukrainian Bolsheviks took over the government in Kyiv and turned them into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1919 and this government supported the creation of the USSR. This picture depicts the flag of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic but is a good picture to use as it represents the union between Ukraine and the Soviet Union. One can see the gradual shift of Ukraine turning into the USSR.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    Four republics including, the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republics and the Ukrainian and Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republics, established the U.S.S.R. as the successor to the Russian Empire on the territories combined. The picture demonstrates the territories that combined to form the Soviet Union which was the largest territorial union based on geographical views, not just power.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    Lenin suffered several strokes at the age of 53 until his eventual death. The cause of these strokes included that the blood vessels in his brain were extremely hardened. He eventually passed away from a brain hemorrhage. This photo accurately presents Lenin’s death as he is laying and showing his death was due to internal illness rather than fatal wounds by assassination like many other authority leaders at the time.