timeline for Russian Revolution, Civil War, Lenin

  • Revolution of 1905 and October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and October Manifesto
    The russian revolution of 1905 consisted of social and political uprisings which spread throughout the Russian empire. Uprisings included military mutinies, peasants protests, and worker strikes. All of the social and political uprisings eventually forced the Tsar to implement reforms to please the people as is listed in the October Manifesto. The photo is significant because it shows the intensity of the crowd uniting in order to demand changes from the Tsar.
  • Beginning of WWI

    Beginning of WWI
    It can be argued that the start of ww1 was triggered by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro Hungarian Empire. The controversy is that the killer was a supporter of Serbia, therefore creating political tensions between Serbia and Austro-Hungary. This tension ultimately led to the ultimatum given to Serbia. This photo can be used to compare geological features of nations from beginning of the war and the end of the war.
  • Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations

    Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations
    Tsar Nicholas II took command of the army even though the cabinet voted unanimously against it. The cabinet feared that if there were setbacks in the army, it would reflect negatively of the Tsar himself since he was in control. This photo is significant as it shows Tsar Nicholas II on the high horse and in the front line while everyone kneels to him, which shows his command and control over the military.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    The Brusilov Offensive began on June 4, 1916 and ended in September 1916 as the largest and successful Allied Offensive in WW1. The Russian army launched an attack against the Central Powers on the Eastern Front. The Russian general Aleksey Alekseyevich Brusilov was distinguished for the Brusilov Breakthrough on the Eastern Front. The significance of this photo is that this is a photo of the general that was most prominent throughout the offensive
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Opposing Rasputin’s influence over the Tsar and Tsarina, a group of conservative nobles shot Rasputin. Rasputin suffered and died from three gunshot wounds, one being in his forehead, at the home of Felix Yusupov. Although it is not certain that this photo is of Rasputin in his deathbed, it does show Rasputin in an ill state.
  • Provisional Government formed

     Provisional Government formed
    The provisional government formed when the tsarist government fell with Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication. Politicians from the state Duma and moderate socialists came together to form what was known as the provisional government. This photo is significant as it shows the people who made up the provisional government - giving the audience insight to who ruled russia for a short period of time.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    General Lavr Kornilov, the commander in chief of the Russian Army, attempted a military coup against the Russian Provisional Government. Kornilov hoped to bring about a more unified form of government. This photo is significant as it conveys the image of the soldiers greeting Kornilov, depicting his importance.
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    A meeting between the Petrograd Workers and the Soldiers Delegates declared the establishment of the Red Guard on August 28. Trotsky organized the Red Guard, who were known as the Workers’ Militia, and became the official armed force of the Petrograd Soviet. This photo is significant as it portrays Trotsky addressing the Red Guard which depicts his leadership and power over the group.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    Thousands of women who are workers marched and went on strike in Petrograd demanding bread because food was not affordable due to high inflation rates. They were joined by men factory workers, non-working women, and even soldiers loyal to the Tsar. This photo is significant as it shows unity between not only just women, but men and soldiers as well to demand food.
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    There were many internal political, social, and economic factors which led to the abdication of the Tsar and an end to the Romanov dynasty. Examples of the internal conflicts are the food shortage, strikes by workers, and the February Revolution. This photo is significant as it displays the intensity of the event since this newspaper is published in a publishing company in New York, meaning even Americans were interested in the topic
  • April Theses published

    April Theses published
    Issued by Lenin, the April Theses were directive issues aimed at Bolsheviks. An example is Lenin’s call for the workers’ council, also known as the soviets, while denouncing social revolutionaries and liberals in the provisional government. He also told the Bolsheviks to not work with the provisional government.
  • Return of Lenin from exile

    Return of Lenin from exile
    After a decade of exile, Lenin returned to Petrograd in hopes of taking control of Russia by overthrowing the government. The German government assisted Lenin in his return because they hoped for Lenin to destabilize the political situation in Russia. This photo is significant as it displays public support for the arrival of Lenin.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets
    This meeting was held in Petrograd in the First Cadet Corps building. The meeting consisted of mostly Mensheviks and socialist revolutionaries whom rejected resolutions proposed by the Bolsheviks to end the war and to also transfer power to Soviets. The significance of the photo is that it displays and illustrates the intensity of the political discussion
  • July Days

    July Days
    A period of unrest against the Russian Provisional Government within the city of Petrograd in Russia between July 16-20, 1917. This event consisted of armed demonstrations and protests by soldiers, sailors, and industrial workers This photo is significant as it portrays how brutal the unrest period was as seen through the bodies lying on the floor
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control
    Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks to launch a coup against the Russian Provisional Government where they occupied various governmental buildings and several other locations within the city of Petrograd. After two days, Russia had created a new government with the lead of Lenin This picture is significant as it depicts Lenin with great power and influence on the rest of the crowd, showing his prominent role in the Revolution.
  • Cheka formed

    Cheka formed
    The Cheka was formed on December 19th of 1917 due to the October Revolution in 1917 as a group that investigates and deals with threats to the Bolshevik regime. The Cheka was referred to as the “secret police” of the Bolsheviks. This photo is significant as it displays the symbol of the Cheka, portraying a shield and a sword which shows how the group were the first to defend the revolution and to defeat the enemies
  • Wartime Communism created

    Wartime Communism created
    War Communism was an economic policy which was implemented by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. This policy focused on the expropriation of private businesses and the requisitioning of grain as well as the nationalization of the industry. This photo is significant as it displays the Red Army soldiers and those who implemented the horrors of war communism.
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    The Constituent Assembly met and proceeded to elect a chairman and considered whether to ratify proclamations of peace and land, which they had then decided to replace these decrees with SR policies. When deputies returned the following morning of the meeting, the entrances of the palace were locked by the Red Guards. The deputies were told the Assembly was dissolved. This photo is significant as it portrays a Bolshevik artist’s depiction of the Red Guards during the Constituent Assembly
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    A peace treaty between the Bolshevik party and the Central Powers which was signed on March 3, 1918. This treaty ended Russia’s participation within the first World War. This is significant as it portrays the delegates at the meeting in which the treaty was signed, depicting the negotiation process.
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    The Red Terror was carried out by the Bolshevik Party which was essentially a campaign of political repression and mass killings. These events were mainly carried out by the Cheka. This photo is significant because it displays an image of propaganda set up by the Bolshevik party, showing their dedication and power through the Red Terror.
  • Kolchak begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia
    Kolchak established an anti-communist government in Siberia and was against the Reds because he refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities and refused to cooperate with non-Bolshevik leftists. This photo is significant in showing the importance and authority Kolchak had on the people and how he was in control of troops and worked with other generals.
  • Poles move toward Kiev

    Poles move toward Kiev
    During the Kiev Operation, the Poles moved toward Kiev with an attempt by the armed forces of the newly re-emerged Poland to seize the territories of modern-day Ukraine. This photo is significant in showing that Lenin made a speech that motivates the troops to fight in the Soviet-Polish war, a counter perspective of the Poles moving towards Kiev.
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

    Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    The Soviets attempted to take Warsaw advancing to Poland, but lacked support, so it stopped on the Vistula River which is near Warsaw. This resulted in a decisive Polish victory during the Polish–Soviet War. This photo is significant in showing how the Polish soldiers captured Soviet battle flags after the battle, showing the Soviets failed attempt in taking Warsaw.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    The Tambov Rebellion was a peasant-organized rebellion that challenged the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War. The rebellion started due to the forced confiscation of grain that the Bolshevik authorities performed after placements of some policies. This photo is significant in showing how peasants worked together to make a large organized rebellion to challenge the regime.
  • Kronstadt uprising

    Kronstadt uprising
    The Kronstadt uprising was an insurrection of Soviet sailors, soldiers and civilians against the Bolshevik government. This took place in the Russian SFSR port city of Kronstadt and was about the plight of the country; agricultural and industrial production was drastically reduced and the transport system was disorganized. This photo is significant in showing the soldiers during the protests and how they worked together.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    Wartime Communism, which was enforced by the Supreme Economic Council, ended through the beginning of the New Economic Policy. Factors that led to the failure of war communism included food shortages, famine, fall in factory production, and revolts. This photo is significant in showing the forced labor conditions that the people had to face before the end of war communism.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    The treaty of Rapallo was an agreement between the German Republic and Russian Soviets which renounced all territorial and financial claims against one another after World War I and the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This photo is significant showing the signing of the Treaty of Rapallo in Rapallo, Italy.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    Ukraine became one of the original republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and did not gain its independence back until 1991. This photo is significant in showing how Ukraine wanted to become independent during the Ukrainian War of Independence.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union was formed when the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, a 1922 treaty between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia, was approved by the First All-Union Congress of Soviets. This photo is significant in showing the signing of the treaty that formed and was the basis of the Soviet Union.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    Lenin died due to a stroke at Gorki Leninskiye, Russia. He was given a lavish funeral and his body was embalmed and put on display. After his death, Stalin was officially hailed as his successor as the leader of the ruling Communist Party and Soviet Union. This photo is significant in showing Lenin’s funeral where many people gathered together.