Russian Revolution

  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday
    A massive group of protesters marched to the Winter Palce to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II. Rather than answering to the needs of the people, Tsarist troops were sent out to open fire on the large crowd, killing hundreds and wounding hundreds more. The significance of this event is that it showed the incompetence of the Tsar in handling the dissatisfied public, and due to this event he lost the support of many workers who had supported the Tsar, who now joined the revolutionary groups
  • Bolsheviks Refuse the Mensheviks

    The Bolshevik party met in London and turned down a proposal to reunite with the Mensheviks. This is significant because it shows that the Bolsheviks are an independent group.
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    Russia on Strike

    Between October 20 to October 30, all of Russia was on strike. This was supposedly the most effective general strike in history. During this strike, the first Soviet was formed in Petrograd (St. Petersburg). This event caused the Tsar to finally answer to the people's demands, through his October Manifesto.
  • October Manifesto

    Tsar Nicholas II announces his intentions with Russia, and finally gives the public an snswer. He announces his October Manifesto, where he promises to provide some civil liberties, and to create a Duma (Russian parliament). At the same time, the government arrested the Soviets in Petrograd. This event is significant because it brought an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution.
  • The Fundamental Laws

    The Fundamental Laws are created to put the Tsar's October promises into effect. However, the Tsar went back on his promises; he held huge powers to himself and most importantly, he held the power to call and dismiss the new Duma, therefore he did not have to listen to the Duma. This influenced the moderates to now supportthe Tsar.
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    World War 1 Breaks Out

    Russia was not up for this task politically, militarily, or economically, but the War gave the Tsar the perfect opportunity to rally his country around a nationalistic cause that will draw their attention away from their internal problems. However, the Tsar was a terrible at organizing the war effort more than running the country at peace, that the war merely built up a general disatisfaction of the Tsar, and along with the dissatisfaction the demand for a change started to build up as well.
  • Russian Army's Supreme Commander, Tsar Nicholas II

    Tsar Nicholas II leaves for the front to take personal charge of the troops, leaving his wife, Tsarina Alexandria, in charge of domestic afffairs, The Tsarina gives power over the governent to a dirty, slightly mad monk named Rasputin (believing he is a saint), who switches around the cabinet ministers to replace capable officials with his arty friends. Due to this event, the people grow more and more disgusted with the Romanovs.
  • Rasputin is Murdered

    Rasputin is Murdered
    Many Aristocrats, along with the general public, wanted Rasputin out of Russia's affairs for they believed he was ruining mother Russia. Rasputin was poisoned, shot by Prince Yusupov, then shot 3 more times before he finally died. This event showed that even the nobility did not agree with the ways Russia was being run.
  • International Women's Day

    Women textile workers in Petrograd go on strike; this strike is the spark to future strikes from other factories, and is the beggining of the Revolution. By the next day, 200,000 workers are on strike.
  • Revolutionaries take Petrograd

    In Petrograd, 200,000 strikers and women call for the overthrow of the Tsar. Even the Cossacks (crack troops of the Tsar) refuse an order to attack the strikers. On March 12, troops are sent out to handle the protesters, but they shoot their commander instead and join the protesters. By the end of the day, due to this event, Petrograd becomes under the revolutionaries' control.
  • General Strike

    Russia is frozen. Many people are joining the activists in the streets. The crowd demands Russia be pulled out of the war and for the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. The next day government troops revolt against their commanders, and join the protesters. The same day, Tsar Nicholas II dissolves the Duma.
  • Moscow Falls

    The Tsar abdicates his position and is placed under house arrest, signifying the end of the Russian Monarchy.
  • The Provisional Government is Formed

    The Provisional Committee of the Duma forms the Provisional Government, with the prime minister being Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov. Aleksandr F. Kerensky becomes vice chairman of the Petrograd Soviet as well as the minister of justice in the Provisional Government. By the next day, Russia is no longer a monarchy.
  • Provisional Government Declared

    The Soviet and the Duma come together to declare a Provisional Government, promising a Constituent Assembly with universal secret ballot, and to legalize strikes. The declaration of the Provisional Government officially symbolized a new era, and the end of the monarchy era
  • Lenin is Back

    Lenin is Back
    The Germans smuggle Lenin back into Russia, where Lenin gains support from the Bolsheviks and the Soviets by developing the winning slogan "Peace, Love, Bread" from his April Theses. Because Lenin returns to Russia, he gains recognition as the leader of the Bolsheviks and Soviets.
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    The July Days

    Mass demonstrators in Petrograd want the Soviet to replace the Provisional Government. The next day (July 17), the Bolshevik leaders are arrested, and Lenin goes underground in Finland. On July 20, Lvov resigns as prime minister.
  • Attempt to Overthrow Provisional Government

    From July 16-18, radical soldiers, along with the Bolsheviks, attempted to overthrow the Provisional Government. However, they failed because the Soviets did not contribute to the effort, and Lenin had to flee from the Provisional Government. This event revealed the increasing strength of the Soviets.
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    November Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)

    November 6 - Troops of the Military Revolutionary Committee surround the Winter Palace (where the PG is in session) after Lenin writes to the Bolsheviks to arrest the PG members. In the MRC's name, the PG is overthrown.
    Nov. 7 - The Bolsheviks occupy strategic points in Petrograd. and Ministers of the PG are arrested.
    Nov 8 - The New Bollshevik government is proclaimed. This brings the Bolshevik Party to power and establishes the Soviet Communist government in Russia.
  • The Cadet Uprising

    Cadets of the Petrograd military schools start a revolt, let by G.P. Polkovnikov, and capture the muilting that hosts the main telepone center. Unfortunately the cadets striked too soon, they didnt sync with Kerensky's and Krasnov's attack, and the Reds defeated them quickly. This event marks the beginning of the Russian Civil War.
  • Election for the Constituent Assembly

    The Assembly was to write the new constitution for the Russian people. The Socialist Revolutionary Party received majority (40%), Bolsheviks (25%), and the Constitutional Democratic Party (35%). The Bolsheviks argue that the power should be given to the Soviets; this election gives them the motivation to make it so.
  • Lenin Signs an Armistice

    Lenin signs a separate armistice with Germany in order to pull Russia out of war. Leon Trotsky represents Russia in Belarus to negotiate a treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary. By taking the steps to pull Russia out of the war, Lenin maintains the support of his people, and preserve his revolution.
  • CHEKA is Created

    CHEKA is Created
    The Bolshevik government establishes the VCHECKA (CHEKA) - created by Lenin, its secret police, and Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky is apointed conrade in charge.
  • The Cossacks Declare Independence

    The Cossacks declare their independence (led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov) , and form the Republic of the Don; an aftermath of the Bolsheviks in power. They are one of the first of the many groups/countries to declare their independence from Russia.
  • Congress of Soviets accept The Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia

    The 3rd Congress of Soviets creates a new constitution; Russia is declared a Soviet Republic, and all "Power" is given to workers and soldiers.
  • The Lativians Declare Independence

  • The Ukrainians Declare Independence

    Ukraine declares independence from Russia, they are not in favor of the Bolsheviks.
  • Trotsky Denouces German Peace Terms

    Sent to Brest-Litovsk to negotiate the terms, Trotsky walks out of the negotiations because the terms of the peace treaty are too harsh. Russia is still in the war.
  • Finland Declares Independence

    Finland declares independence from Russia, however, this leads to a civil war of their own because some believe Finlad should still be under Russia.
  • Orthodox Church Separated from State

    A new rule passes to separate the Orthodox church from the State; religion is demolished.
  • Lithuanians Declare Independence

  • Germany Invades Russia

    Since Russia is still an enemy, Germany invades it, and wins because basically the entire army has deserted. This pushes the Bolsheviks to accept the peace treaty.
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    Reds Occupy Kiev

    The Reds occupy Kiev until incoming Germans drive them out. This event shows the capabilities of the Reds.
  • Nationalization of Land Proclaimed

    All land became state property and only those who can cultivate it and use it. The farmers were required to turn over any extra crops for the distribution for the rest of the country. The farmers did not want to supply food for the government because they knew they would receive very little back, therefore the majority of Russia starved.
  • "Red Army" Founded

    "Red Army" Founded
    The "Red Army", comsisting of the "workers" and "peasants" are founded; massive mobilisation is followed to counter ant-Bolshevik forces.
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The Treaty of of Brest-Litovsk is signed by Soviet Russia and the Central Powers in order to pull Russia out of the war. The treaties had harsh terms, Russia lost huge amounts of land and 3/4 of their economy for the peace.
    The Left Socialist Revolutionaries quit their teamwork with the Bolsheviks. Due to this treaty, Russia is officially out of the war, but this angers a large number of people who believed Russia should still fight, which acts as a major influence to the upcoming Civil War.
  • Bolsheviks Move Capital

    The Bolsheviks move their capital from Petrograd to Moscow for safety reasons; this shows the effects of the White Army.
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    Battle of Yekaterinodar

    Kornilov is killed in this battle. Anton Ivanovich Denikin becomes the new commander of the White Army. This event shows the capabilities of the Red Army.
  • Czechoslovak Legion is Ordered to Surrender Arms

    The Provisional Government under Kerensky released these prisoners of war, The Bolshevik government ordered the Czechoslovak Legion to surrender their arms, but the Czechs refused; then they took control of the trans-Siberian railroad.
  • British Troops

    British troops arrive at Murmansk to support the White Army. Britain is one of the many countries that are opposed to communism.
  • War Communism

    The state took control of the country's industries, all steam-driven mills, local utilities and private railways. This is one of the many policies of War Communism - eventaully, private industries disappeared almost entirely.
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    Left SR Expelled

    In the Fifth Congress of Soviets, the left Socialist Revolutionaries who had been in the Bolshevik government are now expelled. This leads to a revolt in Moscow by the disgruntled Let SR.
  • The Tsar and Family are Killed

    The Tsar and Family are Killed
    On the night of July 16/17, the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family are killed by the Bolsheviks (Commandant Yurovsky) when the White forces and the Czech Legion come close to Yekaterinburg, stirring fear that the Tsar might be liberated. This is the death of the last emperor of Russia.
  • The Reds Lose Kazan

    From August 5 to 7, the Reds lose Kazan to the Czech Legion and the People's Army who were led by Vatsetis. Gaining Kazan is important to the anti-red forces because it opens up a door to Moscow.
  • Assassination Attempt at Lenin & Assiassination of Uritsky

    Assassination Attempt at Lenin & Assiassination of Uritsky
    Fanya Kaplan shoots 3 bullets at Lenin who is hit by 2; one in his jaw, one in his shoulder - recoverable wounds. Meanwhile, Kannegiser shoots the Chairman of the Petrograd Cheka, Moses Solomonovich Uritsky. These events are unrelated but the coincidence causes the Bolsheviks to become paranoid, and to run around armed.
  • The Revolutionary Military Council is Created

    This Council will serve as the the executive board of the Red Army; the Bolshevik government proclaims a campaign of Red Terror.
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    Battle of Kazan

    The Reds re-capture Kazan with 11,000 Reds to fight 6,000 Whites and Czechs. Amidst this battle, Colonel Vatsetis becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Red forces. The anti-Bolshevik forces' door to Moscow is closed.
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    The Kolchak Coup

    Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak becomes the leader of the White Army and sets up his own government, becoming a military dictator. On November 18, Kolchak launches his Eastern Russia Offensive, to push White forces to the east. This ends on December 24.
  • French Support for Whites

    French troops occupy Odessa to support the White forces. France too, is not a supporter of the Bolsheviks.
  • Tambov Uprising

    Taxation is out of proportion, and the villagers of a tiny village in the Tambov region called Kamenka fight back. This riot spreads to neighboring towns and the Tambov Uprising, as well as the Green Army (neither siding with the Reds nor Whites) is created, led by Petr Mikhailovich Tokmakov. The Bolsheviks seek justice with harsh punishments, but this only givees the Tambov Rebellion and peasants across the western country to join the revolt.
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    Battle of Perekop

    The Red Army, led by Mikhair Frunze goes against the White Army, led by Pyotr Wrangel. The White Army is defeated by the Red Army for good, and the White Army evacuates. The Reds win the Civil War.