Timeline for the Russian Revolution

  • Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto
    Spurred by humiliation of defeat from Russo-Japanese war, protests coordinated by 'Union of Liberation' resulted in Bloody Sunday calling for Tsar Nicholas to suggest reform. More strikes formed by ‘Soviet’ (first workers’ council), led Tsar forming the October Manifesto which promised to guarantee civil liberties, establish a broad franchise, and create a legislative body (Dumas). Image used highlights how Manifesto marked end of unlimited autocracy which enabled some freedom after revolution.
  • Beginning of WW I

    Beginning of WW I
    Austria’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot dead in Sarajevo in June, this led to threats, ultimatums and troop mobilizations. Serbia (Russian ally) had been invaded by Austria-Hungary by August consequently leading Russia to declare war in response. Following that, the German Kaiser was prompted to declare war on Russia. The image used is Russian propaganda known in Russia as portraying the “Second Patriotic War”.
  • Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations

    Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations
    Tsar Nicholas II had left St. Petersburg in 1915 despite the large starvation, war, and tsardom strikes. His arrogance in thinking his presence would motivate troops became humiliation as realization for inexperience relating to the military had hit. Consequently, the organization of the military saw shortages of resources like ammunition and medical/ technical equipment. The people lost trust with the Tsar for this failure. Image shows Tsar Nicholas II and Grand Duke Nicholas in the field.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    The Brusilov Offensive (June 4th, 1916 - September 20th, 1916) was the largest Russian assault in history, happening during WW1. Many times, Russia lacked resources and ideas for success. This time, General Aleksey Brusilov interpreted the losses and was able to mature Russia's tactics. He had ordered an offensive on Austro-Hungarian forces and was able to weaken them largely. This was a major progression for Russian. (picture shows General Aleksey Brusilov)
  • Assassination of Rasputin:

    Assassination of Rasputin:
    Thought of as a mad puppeteer of the tsar and tsarina, a majority of Russians despised Rasputin. He was power-hungry and had manipulated the Romanovs to ensure his voice grew in significance. As a result of this poor public opinion, he was eventually murdered by Felix Yussupov who essentially believed that this could give Nicholas II a second chance for a prestigious monarchy. The image chosen shows Rasputin alongside the women of the royal family, accentuating his power amongst them.
  • Trotsky Organizes Red Guard to Defend Petrograd

    Trotsky Organizes Red Guard to Defend Petrograd
    In March 1917, Trotsky ordered the Red Guard to defend Petrograd, specifically the current government. The group was made up of armed factory workers, usually volunteered and unexperienced. The group helped to extend the power of the Soviets. (picture displays the Red Guard marching to defend the Russian Government)
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    Textile workers, who were women, went on strike to demand an end to the war, food shortages (peace and bread), and tsarism. As a result, other groups followed by leaving their work. This strike became a mass movement and was the main cause of the February/March revolution, which ultimately led to the abdication of the tsar. The image illustrates the number of Russian citizens protesting, demonstrating the popular belief for change.
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    During the February Revolution, at the hand of Petrograd insurgents, the Tsar is forced to abdicate. The position is given to the Tsar's nephew, however, his family members refuse in fear of the political turmoil and not wanting to get involved. Overall, the provisional government was then introduced. The image chosen shows the headline of a newspaper bringing awareness to the Tsar's abdication as it was a significant event towards progression for Russian people.
  • Provisional Government formed

    Provisional Government formed
    A bourgeois government indeed, the Provisional Government was built on very little stability. Liberalization had been very influential to society as changes such as increase in women’s rights, and censorship removal were apparent. However, there were several badly received choices made, an example, staying in the war. The image used to represent this event highlights how the PG's power was more fit to a democratic system, disputed amongst many.
  • April Theses published

    April Theses published
    Presented to the April conference of Bolsheviks, the April Theses created by Lenin included his famous promise of “peace, bread, and land”. This soviet decree reignited partial Bolshevik support and ultimately, helped to gain some momentum in the events leading up to the October/November revolution. Within the decree demands were apparent such as end to the war, Transfer of Land to the peasants and Nationalization of Banks. The image emphasizes how some had negative opinions on Lenin's return.
  • Return of Lenin from exile

    Return of Lenin from exile
    Lenin, who had eventually became the leader of Russia - returned from Switzerland in which he escaped to in 1907. He gave speeches to inspire his followers. Additionally, he strategized and feasted on pre-existing discontent among people knowing the after-affect of the February/March Revolution of 1917 on the citizens. Ultimately, this allowed him to lead Bolsheviks in the eventual uprising causing the Provisional Government to fall. The image reveals Lenin's return and his growing support.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets
    This meeting constructed the soviet system; a democratic system accentuating the wants of the people for their government. They discussed goals for the future such as revolutionary democracy, war, constituent assembly, local government, and food. Lenin had announced thoughts on the Bolshevik's will, which he received backlash from the Socialist Revolutionary-Menshevik majority. The image reveals how there was a countless amount of attendees, emphasizing how perspectives varied greatly.
  • July Days

    July Days
    July Days were known as the span of days where workers and soldiers staged armed demonstrations in Petrograd against the Provisional Government. This temporarily undermined the government and Bolshevik ruling. (picture shows the streets during the July Days where about 400 people were injured)
  • Kornoliv Affair

    Kornoliv Affair
    The Kornilov Affair (August 27, 1917 – September 13, 1917) was a coup d'état led by the General of the Russian Army, Lavr Kornoliv. Kornoliv tried to obtain the power of the Russian government and replace Alexander Kerensky. The coup failed but still pushed the idea of further change. The motivations of the event are still speculated by Historians. (pictured is General Lavr Kornoliv, leader of the coup d'état)
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control
    On November 6th and 7th of 1917 (October 25th on the Julian Calendar), the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government as the climax of the October Revolution. This led to the development of the soviet government which was to be led by communists. This was a large change in Russian society. (picture shows part of the October revolution, which led to the overtaking of the government)
  • Cheka Formed

    Cheka Formed
    On December 20th 1917, was a secret police force created by Vladimir Lenin for security measures in Russia. Containing up to 100,000 employees, the individuals of the Cheka made many choices for themselves, picking and choosing who they should arrest. Many opponent groups were targeted by the Cheka. They used many torture and violent methods. (picture shows a group of the Cheka police)
  • Wartime Communism created

    Wartime Communism created
    Created in June 1918, War Communism (introduced by Lenin) was an economic policy placed on the Bolsheviks throughout the Russian Civil War. Primary factors of the change implied the nationalization of industry and the expropriation of private business. These new measures significantly hurt much of Russia's production which indirectly hurt the well-being of many Russian citizens. (Picture shows Russian citizens adjusting to the new change)
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    On January 18th, 1918, the Constituent Assembly had met and rejected the Bolshevik’s demand that it recognize the authority of the Soviet government. Bolshevik Delegates of the Assembly had walked out that day, and the following day, Soviet Troops dispersed representatives that were non-Bolshevik. The government eventually dissolved the Assembly. (Picture shows one of the meetings of the Constituent Assembly)
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    A peace treaty signed between the Central powers and Ukraine on Feb. 9, 1918 and with Soviet Russia on March 3, 1918. The treaty was in regards of the hostilities between Soviet Russia and Ukraine regarding the war. The treaty also ended Russia’s participation in World War 1 and they had to acknowledge Ukraine's independence. Russia was finally out of the war and able to focus on their won issues. (picture shows delegates meeting for the treaty)
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    Red Terror, lasting from September 1918 to October 1918, was a Bolshevik enforced campaign involving intimidation, arrests, violence and executions that were thought to help the communist takeover in Russia’s society. This was mainly conducted by the Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police, which was only the beginning of these movements. (picture shows one of the many demonstrations conducted during red terror)
  • Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia
    In early 1919, white forces acknowledged Kolchak as their general commander. In March, he was able to prepare a triple offensive as a result of this. With Czech assistance, Kolchak moved from Western Siberia to Moscow. Gen. Anton Denikin led the attack from the south. During this time, Gen. Yudenich of Estonia marched on Petrograd. In the end, the Red Force defeated the Whites in Ukraine and the Kolchak's army in Siberia, which was led to the East in 1919. this picture shows Kolchak
  • Poles move toward Kiev

    Poles move toward Kiev
    On April 25, 1920, the Kyiv Expedition, which included 65,000 Polish and 15,000 Ukrainian forces, began. It was carried out by the Polish forces in the south, under the direction of Pilsudski. This picture was chosen as it shows the Polish, and Ukrainian soldiers working together for the Kyiv expedition.
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

    Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    Poland, on the verge of total defeat, repulsed and defeated the Red Army. After the Polish Kiev Offensive, Soviet forces launched a successful counterattack in summer 1920, forcing the Polish army to retreat westward in disarray. The Battle ended on August 25, 1920. This picture was chosen as it shows the soldiers during the battle of Warsaw and their unity and will to fight.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    During the Russian Civil War, the Tambov Rebellion of 1920–1921 was one of the greatest and best-organized peasant uprisings against the Bolshevik regime. The insurrection occurred in the contemporary Tambov Oblast and a portion of the Voronezh Oblast, some 480 kilometers southeast of Moscow. The Tambov rebellion ended in June 1921. this picture was chosen as it shows how much the Tambov Rebellion spread in only a year.
  • Kronstadt uprising

    Kronstadt uprising
    The Kronstadt uprising, which took place in early 1921 on the island stronghold of Kronstadt, a few miles off the coast of Petrograd, was an anti-Bolshevik uprising carried out by soldiers and sailors. The uprising was a response to Bolshevik economic policies, food scarcity, political oppression, and violence. The Kronstadt uprising ended on March 17, 1921. This picture was chosen as it shows the soldiers that are based on Kronstadt defending the fortress with their lives
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    War communism began in June 1918, enforced by the Supreme Economic Council, known as the Vesenkha. It ended on 21 March 1921 with the beginning of the New Economic Policy, which lasted until 1928. I picked this picture because it shows the end of wartime communism and the start of the New Economic Council.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union, signed at Rapallo, Italy. Negotiated by Germany's Walther Rathenau and the Soviet Union's Georgy V. Chicherin, it reestablished normal relations between the two nations. I chose this picture as it shows all of the powerful leaders of the Soviet Union, and Germany altogether and discussing the treaty and creating peace for both nations.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    The Ukrainian Bolsheviks, who had defeated the national government in Kyiv, established the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which on 30 December 1922 became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. This picture was chosen as it shows the Soviet soldiers march into Ukraine and it shows how outnumbered the Ukrainian soldiers were and how the Soviet soldiers were not challenged as they took over Ukraine.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    Following the 1917 Revolution, four socialist republics were established on the territory of the former empire: the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republics and the Ukrainian and Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republics. On December 30, 1922, these constituent republics established the U.S.S.R. this picture was chosen because it shows how the Soviet Union was formed.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    Lenin died on January 21, 1924, at the age of 53 years. Although some doctors suggested that the origin of his health problems was neurosyphilis, the autopsy findings were consistent with severe atherosclerosis. I chose this picture as it shows how much power Lenin had when he was alive and that the things that he did would carry on after him.