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Russia 1855-1964

  • Year of Revolutions in Europe

    Year of Revolutions in Europe
    a series of political upheavals throughout Europe, most widespread revolutionary wave in European history, aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, initial revolution began in France in February, Over 50 countries were affected.
    Nicholas I helped to restore Austrian power & the status quo in Europe following this then convinced himself that Catholic Austria would support Russia in the struggle for influence over the Ottoman Empire which ruled Turkey
  • Russian fleet annihilates Turkish navy

    Russian fleet annihilates Turkish navy
    at Sinope, helped to persuade Britain and France to fight with the Turks
  • Russian troops entered the Danubian provinces

    Russian troops entered the Danubian provinces
    Russian troops entered the Danubian provinces, and this led to a Russo-Turkish conflict
  • Crimean War begins

    Crimean War begins
    The Crimean War (1853-56) was provoked by Russian plans for expansion in the Turkish-controlled Balkan area. In 1853, the Russians demanded the right to protect the Christians there, and when the Turks rejected this, war broke out
  • Period: to

    Crimean War

    Russia was never able to muster more than 60,000/1M, soldiers, 1 musket for every 2 men, could equip only 4% of Russian troops with the newer, long-range percussion rifle, when 33% of French troops and 50% of British troops used this weapon. "The strongest justification for autocracy was that the existing system guaranteed Russian stability and greatness. So its failure seemed to call into question the very bases of Russian politics and society" - Derrick Murphy
  • Britain & France start to fight wt Turks

    Britain & France start to fight wt Turks
  • French and British ships moved in...

    French and British ships moved in... prevent a possible Russian landing at Constantinople
  • 104 periodicals published

    104 periodicals published
  • 1239 books published

    1239 books published
  • Period: to

    Alexander II

  • Period: to

    Siege of Sevastopol

    Russian were forced to sue for peace
  • Alexander warns that serfdom must be abolished ‘from above’

    Alexander warns that serfdom must be abolished ‘from above’
  • 400,000 to 1000,000 Primary Students

    400,000 to 1000,000 Primary Students
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Ends Crimean War, Russia looses, not only reduced Russia's influence in the Black Sea area, but also declared the Black Sea a 'neutral zone', preventing its use by Russian warships in times of peace
  • Secret Committee of Ministers is set up

    begins emancipation process
  • Ministers have to submit reports to special commissions of the State Council

    Ministers have to submit reports to special commissions of the State Council
    who will return them to the ministers with comments before they are presented to the tsar
  • 230 periodicals published

    230 periodicals published
  • 2085 books published

    2085 books published
  • Emancipation

    stay serfs for 2 yrs while charters drawn up, right to marry, own property, take legal action, engage in trade or business, right to choose husband, could not be bought or sold, ‘temporarily obligated’ until landlord agreed to begin process of transferring any land apart from the peasant’s dwelling place & garden (which the landlord could not refuse to sell), redemption dues 49 years at 6% interest to gov, gov in compensated by issuing interest-bearing state bonds, nobles best land & high prices
  • Secret Committee public as Main Committee

  • Commission set up to look into legal reform

  • Period: to

    85% of ex-serfs legally owned land they worked

  • Ministry of Finance and state bank created

    made investing and expanding industry easier
  • Gov staff organised to deal with taxpayers

    tax collection taken out of hands of private financiers
  • Fathers and Sons - Ivan Turgenev published

    Fathers and Sons - Ivan Turgenev published
    OPPOSITION The fathers & sons refers to the growing divide between 2 generations of Russians, and the character Yevgeny Bazarov, a nihilist who rejects the old order. Written as a response to the growing cultural split that he saw between liberals of the 30s/40s & the growing nihilist movement. The nihilists (the "sons") and the liberals (the "fathers") sought Western-based social change in Russia. Popularized use of the term nihilism.
  • Period: to

    Army and Navy are reformed

    empire divided into 15 districts - each had commander who had sole charge supply and recruitment of the armed forces in area. general staff established to oversee further changes, improved administration and organisation within the army, opportunity for peasants to enter the army leadership (rare) Education in the army was attempted through literacy programmes - but it still remained low More on Military Reforms
  • Education Opened Up

    Education Opened Up
    Unis given more freedom, Popular education is extended with more schools being opened in the countryside and secondary schools being allowed to admit women, zemstva control schools instead of the church
  • 2nd Polish Revolt

    2nd Polish Revolt
    aka January Uprising
  • Zemstva Introduced

    Zemstva Introduced
    Consisted of nobles sat in person, small landowners reps, wealthier townsmen reps, less wealthy urban classes reps and peasants, elected by the volosts.
    The nobles received more weight in voting for a zemstvo, as evidenced by the fact that 74% of the zemstvo members were nobles, even though nobles were a tiny minority of the population. Even so, the zemstvo allowed the greater population to have a say in how a small part of their communities would operate.
  • Judicial Reform

    Judicial Reform
    based on concepts drawn from Western systems, simplified easier to understand, independent judges to avoid inefficient results, courts were open to the public, Proceedings were reported, Serious jury trials ( with secret voting), prosecutors and defenders as well as witnesses were involved in trials, Challenges in the open court, Appeals were now allowed, BUT Peasants were outside the mainstream system, Some courts stayed out, Bureaucracy still intervened, trial in large cities
  • Censorship relaxed

    more freedom in publishing, 3rd section no longer so strict on media, don't have to consult a censor before publishing, no of periodicals 104 (1855) to 230 (1860). No of books published 1239 (1855) to 2085 (1860)
  • First assassination attempt by Karakozov

    First assassination attempt by Karakozov
    TURNING POINT beginning of reaction
  • Count Shuvalov Appointed Head of 3rd Section

    Count Shuvalov Appointed Head of 3rd Section
    becomes part of committee of ministers and advisor of A2, begins period of reaction
  • State serfs emancipated on more favourable terms to those belonging to nobles

  • Zemstva’s right to tax is limited

  • Period: to

    Dmitry Tostoy as Education Minister

    REACTIONARY in charge of the college reform, which would result in the prevalence of the classical education (included Latin and Greek languages and ancient literature, among other things)
    In 1872, as Education minister, Tolstoy agreed to the opening by V. I. Guerrier of his Higher Women's Courses in Moscow, thus establishing higher education for women in Russia.
  • Restrictions are imposed on Zemstva’s right publish their proceedings without the permission of administrative officials
  • Milyutin advises A2 on military reform

    Milyutin advises A2 on military reform
    'thanks to the army, Russia became a first-class European power and only by maintaining the army can Russia uphold the position it has acquired'. However 'serfdom does not permit us to shorten the term of service nor to increase the number of those on indefinite leave so as to reduce the number of troops on hand' - General Dimitry Milyutin (Minister for War 1861-1881)
  • Warsaw University closed.

    Warsaw University closed.
  • Municipal Reform

    introduction of the Duma in towns, same as Zemstva
  • Press Law

    Press Law
    transference of offences committed by the press from the jurisdiction of the courts to the Council of Ministers, Offences against the state, punishable by loss of rank, are transferred to a special session of the Senate unless the tsar decides to refer them to the Supreme Criminal Court
  • Censorship Laws tightened

    Censorship Laws tightened
    stricter controls on publishing, publishers shut down
  • Military Service reduced to 15 years

    Military Service reduced to 15 years
    used to be 25, 6 active years 9 in reserve
  • 'Going to the People'

    'Going to the People'
    Inspired by the work of Mikhail Bakunin and Pyotr Lavrov: dedicated revolutionaries could inspire a mass movement to overthrow the ruling class, especially peasantry. 2000-4000 students traveled to villages to live among the serfs and "prepare them for their future political role. Dressed to fit & got jobs as manual laborers. People often unreceptive, with many turning over their "exotic urban visitors" to government authorities. By autumn 1874, more than a thousand arrests had been made.
  • Universal Conscription for all men over 21

    Universal Conscription for all men over 21
  • Regulations on the conduct of troops during public disorders are introduced

    Regulations on the conduct of troops during public disorders are introduced
  • Period: to

    Russo-Turkish War

    Russia won
  • Vera Zasulich Case

    Vera Zasulich Case
    Shot a Tsarist official but was found not guilty after arguing that she was following her beliefs in court, first real test of Alexander II's judicial reforms
  • All states must defend public safety against revolutionaries

    Response to Vera Zasulich case. cases involving public disobedience to civil authorities are removed from the jurisdiction of normal criminal courts. Alexander II appeals to all estates to defend public safety/social groups against the revolutionaries
  • Congress of Berlin

    Congress of Berlin
    ends Russo-Turkish war, imposes a diplomatic defeat on Russian ambitions in the Balkans at Turkey’s expense.
  • Alexander appoints 'Reginal Military Dictators'

    Alexander appoints the governor-generals of Moscow, Kiev, Warsaw, Kharkov, St Petersburg and Odessa as ’regional military dictators’ with the power to use any measure necessary, including exile, to maintain the peace in educational institutions.
  • Security Law

    Security Law
    Bans sale of firearms
  • Police are armed with guns

  • Provincial governors given power to intervene in Zemstva affairs

  • People's Will

    People's Will
  • Zemstvo Expenditure at 35 million rubles

    Zemstvo Expenditure at 35 million rubles
  • Powers of provincial governors over the Zemstva are repealed

  • Zemstva invited to submit proposal for reform of local administration

    Zemstva has a say in local administration!
  • Loris-Melikov Appointed Minister of Interior

    Loris-Melikov Appointed Minister of Interior
  • Statute of State Security

    Statute of State Security
    gave the government powers to: Prohibit gatherings of more than 12 people, Prosecute any individual for political crimes, Introduce emergency police rule where public order was threatened, Set up special courts outside the legal system and Close schools, universities and newspapers
  • Okhrana Created

    Okhrana Created
    the secret police of the Russian tsars, created following the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. For over 30 years, they infiltrated, monitored, censored, and detained groups seen as destabilizing the nation or threatening the autocratic power of the Russian Empire
  • 21,000km of Railway

    21,000km of Railway
    increases to 31,000km by 1891. 10,000km in 10 yrs
  • Loris Melikov Proposals

    Loris Melikov Proposals
    Alexander II gives his approval to the setting up of a commission composed of representatives from the Zemstva and towns with consultative powers to examine legislative bills before submission to the State Council (Alexander III subsequently rejected this proposal). ALMOST DEMOCRACY!!!
  • Manifesto of Unshakable Autocracy

    Manifesto of Unshakable Autocracy
    Influenced if not written by Pobedonostev to set out his goals for rule.
    "We call upon all Our Faithfull subjects to serve Us and the state in fidelity and truth, for the eradication of vile sedition disgracing the Russian land, for the strengthening of faith and morality, for the proper upbringing of children, for the extermination of falsehood and theft, and for the introduction of truth and good order in the operations of the institutions given to Russia by her benefactor, Our beloved father"
  • Alexander II is Assassinated

    Alexander II is Assassinated
    Threw a bomb. The explosion, killing one of the Cossacks and seriously wounding the driver and people on the sidewalk, had only damaged the bulletproof carriage. The emperor emerged shaken but unhurt. He left the carriage to check everyone else was okay but a second bomb was thrown at his feet. Alexander was carried by sleigh to the Winter Palace was bleeding to death, with his legs torn away, stomach ripped open, and his face mutilated. Members of the Romanov family came rushing to the scene
  • Period: to

    Alexander III

  • Statute of Police Surveillance

    Statute of Police Surveillance
    police could use powers on those thought likely to commit crimes or those related to criminals, arrested people wt no right to legal representation.
  • Period: to

    Dmitry Tolstoy as Interior Minister

    reactionary & supporter of strong authority. backing the nobility, regulating peasantry's way of life, spreading his administration's influence over local authorities. Temporary regulations 1882, limited freedom of press. outlined & prepared counter reforms. used his position as edu min to promote study at uni and secondary to educate a Russian elite that would maintain Orthodoxy & Autocracy & competition wt West. focus on consolidating power over education & suppressing revolutionary attitudes
  • Peasant Land Bank created

    Peasant Land Bank created
    help peasants buy land from nobles, not benefitting nobles as emancipation had.
  • Emancipation of Labour group established

    Emancipation of Labour group established Switzerland by Plekhanov. Through the translation, publication and smuggling of Marxist literature the group were dedicated to encouraging an eventual industrial workers’ socialist revolution
  • University Statute // Education

    University Statute // Education
    less autonomy and student freedom, staff appointed by Minister for Education, womens courses closed. Additionally church was given more control over primary education, seconary school fees raised so only nobility & officials' children got in
  • Minister of Justice has more control

    Minister of Justice has more control
    could dismiss judges. Dmitry Nabokov made minister of Justice
  • Noble Land Bank Created

    Noble Land Bank Created
    still trying to please the nobles as his father had. made loans to landowners at more favourable rates of interest; it may have delayed, but did not prevent, the passage of land from landowners to peasants.
  • Poll Tax Abolished

    Poll Tax Abolished
    hated by peasantry, was harsher on peasantry than nobility
  • People's Will Reform

    Reformed in St Petersburg in 1886 the People’s Will were preparing bombs to assassinate Alexander III when they were discovered in March 1887. Lenin’s older brother Alexander Ulyanov was one of the five arrested and later hanged. This episode had a dramatic effect upon Lenin and his family, stimulating the young Lenin to a profound hatred of tsarist rule
  • Lower class children banned from secondary education.

    fees raised so only nobility and officials' children could get in
  • Justices of Peace Abolished

    Justices of Peace Abolished
    replaced by Land captains, members of gentry with complete control over local court cases, administration & tax collection, resented by peasantry, introduced by Tolstoy, Volost (peasant courts) under control of Land Captains, political crimes tried in special courts with no jury. Justices of Peace were elected - loss of democracy
  • Zemstva Act

    Zemstva Act
    Zemstva Independence reduced & control centralised, only 0.7% of pop could vote.
  • Zemstvo expenditure at 47 million rubles

    Zemstvo expenditure at 47 million rubles
  • 31,000km of Railway

    31,000km of Railway
    increased by 10,000 in 10 yrs since 1881
  • Period: to

    Construction of Trans-Siberian Railway

  • Period: to


  • Municipal Government Act

    Municipal Government Act
    Townspeople vote reduced by property qualification & mayor decision; people directly employed by the state.
  • 17 000 strikes

    17 000 strikes
    industrial workers, black hundreds used to break up
  • Period: to

    50% Growth in National Income

  • Period: to

    Nicholas II

  • Tver Zemstvo call for advisory body to the tsar

    Tver Zemstvo call for advisory body to the tsar
    Tver Zemstvo called for the creation of a advisory body to the tsar – tsar dismissed idea
  • Gov subsides to move to Siberia

    Gov subsides to move to Siberia
    Only 750,00 out of 97 million peasants took it
  • Shipov established an ‘All-Zemstvo Organisation’

    Shipov established  an ‘All-Zemstvo Organisation’
    banned in 1899
  • The Bund formed

    The Bund formed
    The General Union of Jewish Workers, known as The Bund, was formed. It was strongly opposed to the autocracy and sought to advance Marxism
  • Rouble put on Gold Standard

    Rouble put on Gold Standard
    russian currency, made foreign trade easier, showed Russian currency was stable (not inflating and deflating randomly)
  • Social Democrats formed

    Social Democrats formed
    later splits into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks in 1903
  • Social Democratic Labour Party formed

    Social Democratic Labour Party formed
    a socialist political party founded in 1898 in Minsk (then part of the Russian Empire, present-day Belarus).
    Formed to unite the various revolutionary organizations of the Russian Empire into one party, the RSDLP split in 1903 into Bolsheviks ("majority") and Mensheviks ("minority") factions
  • All-Zemstvo Organisation Banned

    All-Zemstvo Organisation Banned
  • Zemstvo expenditure at 89 million rubles

    Zemstvo expenditure at 89 million rubles
    grew to 290.5 million in 1913
  • Average life expectancy 27.25 men & 29.83 women

    compared to 45 in UK
  • Beseda Symposium dismissed

    Beseda Symposium dismissed
    Beseda Symposium composed of liberals dismissed from Zemstva boards in 1900, met to discuss concerns re education, judicial reform
  • Police Sponsored TUs

    Police Sponsored TUs
    Zubatov (Chief of Okhrana) organised police sponsored trade unions to cut down on illegal unions and the lure of socialism.
  • Obukhov factory clash

    Obukhov factory clash
    St. Petersburg. Violent clashes with armed police and Cossacks.
  • Social Revolutionary Party founded

    Social Revolutionary Party founded
  • SRs Murder of Bogolepov

    SRs Murder of Bogolepov
    jurist & Minister of National Enlightenment
  • Social Revolutionary Party formed

    Social Revolutionary Party formed
    similar to populists, endorsed overthrow Tsar & redistribute land to peasants, boycotted 1st Duma, ran in 2nd Duma & got majority, Controversially its leadership endorsed Prov Gov & was in multiple coalitions wt liberal & social-democratic parties, radical faction within SRs favored Congress of Soviets and began to drift to Bolsheviks, party split summer 1917 = Right & Left SRs, Alexander Kerensky, one of leaders of Feb Revolution & 2nd & last head of Provisional Government was a member of SRs
  • Period: to

    Populists 2,000 assassinations of gov officials

  • SDLP Splits

    SDLP Splits
    Bolsheviks (majority) & Mensheviks (minority), previously both part of Social Democratic Labour Party
  • Strike in Odessa

    Strike in Odessa
  • Period: to

    Years of the Red Cockerel

  • 90 000 strikes

    90 000 strikes
    industrial, use black hundreds to break up
  • Assembly of St. Petersburg factory workers

    Assembly of St. Petersburg factory workers
    Assembly of St. Petersburg factory workers established by Father Gapon. Rapidly increased to 12 branches and 8000 members.
  • Plehve assassinated by SRs

    Plehve assassinated by SRs
    Minister of Interior
  • Period: to

    Russo-Japanese War

    Japan won, embarrassing cuz Russia was racist and thought Japanese ppl were lesser than, fought between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire during 1904 and 1905 over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and the Korean Empire, wanted a warm water port so they could trade 24/7
  • Potemkin Mutiny

    Potemkin Mutiny
    Sailors mutiny on the battleship Potemkin, part of the Black Sea Fleet. The mutiny triggers riots in Odessa, which are quashed by troops on the Tsar’s orders.
  • Soviets began to be formed

    Soviets began to be formed
  • Meeting of Zemstva Liberals Moscow

    Meeting of Zemstva Liberals Moscow
  • All Russian Peasant Union est

    All Russian Peasant Union est
    established under influence of SRs to encourage peasant discontent
  • St Petersburg General Strike

    St Petersburg General Strike
    brought pburg to a halt, led to oct manifesto
  • Bulygin Proposals

    Bulygin Proposals
    constitutional reform, suggested the creation of an advisory Duma, the just in case plan if the revolution continued
  • December Manifesto

    December Manifesto
    promising better pay and fairer treatment had the desired effect upon troops mainly of peasant origin. By clever use of non-Russian troops against Russian mutineers, and vice-versa, the government had largely restored military discipline by the end of the year.
  • 1905 Revolution

    1905 Revolution
    a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to constitutional reform (namely the "October Manifesto"), including the establishment of the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday
    Troops and police open fire on a peaceful demonstration outside the Winter Palace and elsewhere in St Petersburg, killing and injuring around 1,000 people. The liberal press blames Nicholas II.
  • Grand Duke Sergei assassinated by SRs

    Grand Duke Sergei assassinated by SRs
    Tsar's Uncle
  • Treaty of Portsmouth

    Treaty of Portsmouth
    ends Russo-japanese war, japan wins, signed in Portsmouth USA, Roosevelt given nobel peace prize for convincing then to sign it, confirmed Japan's emergence as the pre-eminent power in East Asia and forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policies there
  • Zemstvo Conference rejected Bulygin proposals for Duma

    Zemstvo Conference rejected Bulygin proposals for Duma
  • October Manifesto

    October Manifesto
    Tsar Nicholas II issues the October Manifesto, promising civil liberties (such as freedom of speech) and an elected parliament (Duma). As a result, restrictions are implemented on the absolute power of the Russian monarch, and a de facto constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is issued.
  • November Manifesto

    November Manifesto
    From 1st Jan 1906 promised to 1/2 redemption payments, by Jan 1st 1907 get rid of redemption payments also improve the resources and terms of Peasant Land Banks
  • Period: to

    Witte as Prime Minister

  • Fundamental Laws

    Fundamental Laws
    confirmed the October Manifesto but also asserting the Tsar's powers over the Duma: the right to rule independently of the Duma when it was not in session.
  • Period: to

    1st Duma

    elections women, under 25s, military ppl, some nationalities couldn't vote, landowners 1 elector/2000 persons right to vote, city habitants 1/4000, peasants 1/30000, workers 1/90000, N2 appointed ministers, did foreign policy, & could declare state of emergency & could do laws, mainly discussed land, tried to political reforms & stop repression of ppts of Revolution 1905-7, only approved 1 law - assigned 15M rubles to ppl affected by crop failure, dissolved by N2 “the Duma of people’s anger”.
  • New Electoral Law

    New Electoral Law
    by Stolypin, Gave more representation to conservative parties (Tsarists) than those on the left (revolutionaries.) used to promote co-operation in the Duma and to help land reforms go through
  • Period: to

    2nd Duma

    main focus agriculture, less attention to gov drafts, counter-revolutionary repressions & measures to improve financial position of lower classes, only 102 days, 55 delegates were accused in a plot against tsar’s family, Some ppl in social democratic faction said to have connections with “a military organization of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party” that was planning armed uprising on 3 June 1907 (the so-called the Coup of the June 3rd).New Regulations on elections were published
  • Period: to

    3rd Duma

  • Period: to

    4th Duma

    25 Feb 1917, N2 signed decree on dissolution of Duma till April 1917. However, Duma continued to gather at private sessions. Duma opposed N2. 27 Feb its members formed Temporary Committee of State Duma that by forming Prov Gov de facto became supreme authority in the country. After N2 went the Duma never gathered in its full completion. However, the Temporary Committee of the State Duma had regular sessions, 6 Oct 1917, State Duma dissolved by Prov Gov & replaced by Constitutional Assembly.
  • Zemstvo Expenditure at 290.5 million rubles

    Zemstvo Expenditure at 290.5 million rubles
    Grown from 89 million in 1900, shows the zemstva still had some power and was still improving local areas
  • Period: to

    Russia in WW1

  • Sovnarkom Created

    Sovnarkom Created
    founded in the Russian Republic soon after the October Revolution in 1917 and its role was formalized in the 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR to be responsible to the Congress of Soviets for the "general administration of the affairs of the state". issued decrees having the force of law when the Congress was not in session, and if these decrees were not approved at the Congress's next session, they were considered revoked, the Congress merely rubber-stamped Sovnarkom decrees at its next session
  • Veshenka created

    Veshenka created
    Council of National Economy created = state control of the direction of the economy
  • Politburo Created

    Politburo Created
    created in Russia by the Bolshevik Party in 1917 to provide strong and continuous leadership during the Russian Revolution occurring during the same year. The first Politburo had seven members: Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov.
  • Decree on Land

    Decree on Land
    land belonged to the ‘entire people,’ people were already seizing land it just legitimised it, impact Peasants hoarded food due to inflation leading to food shortages in towns, resulting in food riots in towns and low bread rations (50g), Spring 1918 – grain crisis
  • Decree on Workers

    Decree on Workers
    worker control of factories, workers already seizing factories, just legitimised it
  • Period: to

    Provisional Government

    had dual power wt petrograd soviet as the soviet controlled the armty and communications, The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October
  • February Revolution

    February Revolution
    23rd of Feb on Julian Calendar used in Russia at the time, Nicholas II is overthrown by army, begins dual power between provisional gov and Petrograd Soviet
  • October Revolution

    October Revolution
    Bolsheviks seize power
  • Period: to


  • Period: to

    Red Green Civil War

    Bolsheviks vs Peasantry, Peasant revolts in countryside – put down by Red Army, Strikes and riots by workers in towns complaining of lack of union representation, harsh discipline, food shortages – put down by Cheka
  • Cheka created

    Cheka created
    the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik 'secret police', though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities.
  • Sovnarkom gave the Cheka higher authority

    Sovnarkom gave the Cheka higher authority
    authority to find, question, arrest and destroy the families of any suspected traitors. Yakov Sverdlov, chairman of the Bolshevik Central Committee, spoke of 'merciless mass Terror against all opponents of the revolution!' All remaining Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks were branded traitors and 500 were shot in Petrograd alone.
  • State Capitalism

    State Capitalism
    a degree of State control of industry and Agriculture, nationalisation
  • Collective Farming

    Collective Farming
    peasants were to pool their resources to farm more effectively
  • Grain Crisis

    Grain Crisis
    spring, low bread rations (50g)
  • 500 SRs & Mensheviks dead in Petrograd alone

    500 SRs & Mensheviks dead in Petrograd alone
    All remaining Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks were branded traitors and 500 were shot in Petrograd alone, Cheka
  • Working hours changed to 18 hrs/day

    Working hours changed to 18 hrs/day
  • Attempt on Lenin's Life

    Attempt on Lenin's Life
    excuse for a frenzied written attack on the 'bourgeois', while the Cheka rounded up thousands on whom this label might be pinned. Confessions and the names of 'accomplices' were obtained by torture, and so began a 'Terror' that left hardly any group untouched.
  • War Communism

    War Communism
    food requisitioning state, end of free market agriculture, Nationalisation Industry, Red/White Civil War = need to feed soldiers & towns, Grain, livestock & firewood taken peasants, Kulaks stocks seized, peasants grew less grain, hoarded & murdered requisition squads = Cheka, Barter system (ration card work books) not wages, working hrs 18/day, Workers try escape countryside passport system, Factory output down (transport disrupted fighting) Diseases towns cholera, dysentery & typhus
  • Period: to

    Red White Civil War

    Bolsheviks vs Tsarists
  • Period: to

    500,000 - 1M ppl were shot

    Red terror, Others might be tortured and/or sent to labour camps, where many died as a result of the physically demanding work they were expected to perform while living on meagre rations.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    a separate peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers (German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I, humiliating for Russia, depriving her of a vast area of land and 55M people, lost land in Ukraine used for farming = even more famine!!
  • Tsar & His Family Executed

    Tsar & His Family Executed
    used against tsarists in red white civil war, didn't tell ppl they killed the kids so they wouldn't be hated as much
  • Period: to

    Red Green Civil War 2.0

    Bolsheviks vs Peasantry
  • Industrial output down 20%

    Industrial output down 20%
    since 1914, due to WW1
  • Ban on Factions

    Ban on Factions
    once an agreement is reached, there can be no further disagreement within the party, made it easier to get rid of ppl cuz u just accuse them of factionalism
  • 8000 priests executed

    8000 priests executed
    Around 8000 priests were executed in 1921, for failing to hand over valuable Church possessions, which were supposedly required for the relief of famine victims.
  • Famine

    caused population fall: 170.9M (1913) → 130.9M (1921) probably due to war aswell
  • Period: to

    New Economic Policy (NEP)

    • Grain tax replace requisitioning – peasants sell surplus 4 profit
    • Nepmen as middlemen – private traders between town & country
    • Peasants purchase foreign goods wt surplus
    • Foreign capitalists invest & set up factories in Russia
    • Nationalisation abandoned: Small private businesses & industries
    • Allowed (shops, small factories)- 80% small scale industry restored to private ownership by 1923
    • Big industry (railways, banking) remain in state control
    • temporary
  • SRs Show Trial

    SRs Show Trial
    11 social revolutionaries put on trial & executed for false crimes
  • Cheka renamed GPU

    Cheka renamed GPU
  • Period: to


  • Agricultural Procurement Prices down 6%

    Agricultural Procurement Prices down 6%
    compared to previous yr, Agricultural Procurement Prices = prices set by gov at which it guarantees to buy grain even if market prices fall, set low so gov can buy grain cheaper.
  • Grain prices down 25% in some areas

    Grain prices down 25% in some areas
    compared to previous year, government could buy grain cheaper, didn't always manage to cover production prices tho
  • 17% of Russians live in towns

    17% of Russians live in towns
    rose to 33% (1939), impact of the 5 year plans
  • War Scare Crisis

    War Scare Crisis
    Nationalist Kuomintang (WIT) party led by General Chiang Kai-shek trying to establish control in china, Chinese Communist Party cooperated wt WIT and both were supported by Russia, Kai-shek gained power & decided he didn't need communists saw as rival, 'purification movement' killed 1/4M communists in china, WIT seized Chinese Eastern Railway which had been agreed to be joint managed wt russia, soviet advisers in china brought home & diplomatic relations broke off by china
  • NEP was failing to produce sufficient growth

    NEP was failing to produce sufficient growth
    NEP was failing to produce the growth that many leading communists sought, and a war scare in the late 1920s made them particularly nervous (reason for 5 yr plans)
  • 61% of peasants were self-sufficient

    61% of peasants were self-sufficient
    didn't create any excess produce to sell, private land
  • Period: to


    local branches of the Party began a period of cleansing the party’s local branches of those who appeared to be not fully committed to communism following the capitalising elements of the NEP. Each party member had to justify their membership after a process of self-criticism in front of his colleagues. As a result bout 11 per cent of members were cleansed from the party.
  • Period: to

    1st 5 Year Plan

    heavy industries 80% of total investment, 1500 enterprises, Dams -> hydroelectricity!Electricity3x, Coal&iron2x, Steel up1/3,Engineering industry better&output of machine-tools,turbines etc,new industrial complexes, new tractor works in Stalingrad, Kharkov&other places, decline in consumer industries e.g. house-building, fertilisers, food processing & woollen textiles, Small workshops out drive against Nepmen&shortages of materials&fuel, Chemicals targets not, Workers changing jobs, instability.
  • Shakhty Trial

    Shakhty Trial
    1st show trial since SRs in 22, 53 engineers & managers from town of Shakhty were arrested, after being accused of conspiring to sabotage the mining industry & conspiring wt foreign capitalist powers, Classist trial to turn public opinion against capitalism and ppl like kulaks and nepmen who made profits and didn't give them to the government, encourage industry leaders to conform wt 5 yr plan out of fear of being sacked/put on trial/executed, reported daily in press during may & june
  • Period: to

    Shahkty Trials reported daily in press

    May & June
  • Trotsky exiled

    Trotsky exiled
    supporters accused of factionalism (e.g. Bukharin)
  • 27 000 dekulakisizers

    27 000 dekulakisizers
    ... sent in from cities to put down peasants and crack down on grain hoarding, peasants clothes, blankets, religious items etc burned, encourages the ppl to turn against the peasantry
  • Period: to

    300 000 kulaks deported

    to far away settlements or work camps
  • Period: to


    (aka Terror Famine): continued till 1933, population much lower cuz of deaths, famine fixed! yay! 3 000 000 dead in Ukraine, 8 000 000 in entire USSR
  • Dekulakisation

    Peasants were slaughtering animals and selling grain cheaply rather than hand it over to the state. Some peasants refused to collectivise. They were accused of being kulaks or enemies of the state
  • Period: to

    crop yields on collective farms much lower

    crop yields on collective farms much lower than individually held ones, due to bad weather, pests & kulaks (best farmers) in put in prison & replaced by factory workers
  • Ryutin Affair

    Ryutin Affair
    prominent communists & members of central committee signed document written by Ryutin urging Stalin's removal and exercising their complaints, 24 members of central committee were expelled from the party & exiled from Moscow, plus Zinoviev & Kamenev (part of Lenin's politburo) cuz they knew abt it, Ryutin was sentenced to 10 yrs in prison but was shot on Stalin's orders in 1937
  • Famine led to est 10M deaths

    Famine led to est 10M deaths
    till 1933, impact of collectivisation, by eliminating the kulak, Stalin deprived Russia of its most productive farmers, Grain quotas were unrealistic, Confiscated grain was stockpiled, some was sold abroad, others left to rot. Not used to feed starving peasantry, Peasants did not want to work as wage earners on land they once owned, Production levels fell
  • Period: to

    2nd Chitski

    In 1932 evidence of dissent within the party resurfaced and in 1932 a second chitski began, which lasted for two years. This time however it was administered directly from Moscow. By 1935 a further 20% of local branch party members were ejected from the party.
  • Purge of Party

    Purge of Party
    over 18% of party branded ryutinites and purged
  • Period: to

    2nd 5 Year Plan

    communications, 4500 enterprises, Dnieprostroi Dam, coming into use -> hydroelectricity, Electricity production expanded rapidly, self-sufficient in machine-making & metalworking, Chemical industries e.g fertilisers growing, Metallurgy developed-minerals e.g. copper, zinc & tin mined for 1st time, Consumer goods industries still lagging, growth in footwear & food processing - modern bakeries, ice-cream production & meatpacking plants, Everyday necessities still scarce, Oil production still bad
  • Sergei Kirov murdered

    Sergei Kirov murdered
    party secretary in Leningrad, friends wt Stalin & was a good speaker & popular within party, but spoke at party conference saying that forcible grain requisition should stop & workers rations should be increased, everyone agreed except 2 politburo members, shot by Leonid Nikolayev cuz his wife was supposedly sleeping wt him but he claimmed that the NKVD knew abt the murder & soon after his bodyguard & some nkvd men mysteriously died in car crash b4 they could give evidence, led to a party purge
  • Amendments to the Criminal Code

    Amendments to the Criminal Code
    decree after Kirov's assassination, gave Yagoda (head of NKVD) powers to arrest & execute anyone accused of 'terrorist plotting,' 6500 arrested under this decree in december alone
  • Bread rationing ended

    Bread rationing ended
    still long queues for food
  • Trial of the 16

    Trial of the 16
    Execution of Zinoviev, Kamenev & 14 of their supporters
  • Ryutin executed on Stalin's Orders

    Ryutin executed on Stalin's Orders
    see Ryutin Affair 1932
  • Trial of the 17

    Trial of the 17
    execution & imprisonment of 17 of Trotsky's former supporters
  • All navy admirals shot

    All navy admirals shot
    accused of treason, not great when ur gonna enter a war in like 2 yrs
  • Census

    population was lower than expected to Stalin shot the ppl who compiled it
  • 35 000 junior army officers shot

    35 000 junior army officers shot
    accused of treason
  • Period: to


    aka the great terror, aka the great purge, 24M ordinary russians sent to gulags where 13M died, 50% of arrests were kulaks, by end 70% of committee @ 17th party congress in 1934 were arrested & shot
  • Yagoda sentenced to death & shot

    Yagoda sentenced to death & shot
    former head of NKVD (1934-6) then replaced by Yezhov, accused of being part of a Trotskyite Conspiracy in 1937 and was convicted, sentenced to death & shot on the 13 march. as a result 23 000 NKVD men were put on trial, most were shot
  • Trial of the 21

    Trial of the 21
    execution of Bukharin and many of his supporters
    Actual video of the trial!
  • Period: to

    3rd 5 Year Plan

    Heavy industry continued to grow, for example, machinery and engineering, but the picture was uneven and some areas did poorly.
    Defence and armaments grew rapidly as resources were diverted to them'
    Steel output grew insignificantly
    Oil production failed to meet targets and led to a fuel crisis.
    Consumer industries once again took a back seat
    Many factories ran short of materials'
  • 33% of Russians live in Towns

    33% of Russians live in Towns
    compared to 17% (1926) impact of 5 year plans
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Nazi-Soviet Pact
    two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years, paved the way for the joint invasion and occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that September. The pact was an agreement of convenience between the two bitter ideological enemies. Stalin kept tight control over the national minorities in the occupied areas under this pact and 1.5M were exiled or sent to gulags
  • Trotsky murdered

    Trotsky murdered
    in his home in Mexico City, picture- the actual crime scene where he was murdered
  • Order 270

    Order 270
    banned soldiers from surrendering, used against prisoners of war who returned
  • 400 000 Ethnic Germans exiled

    400 000 Ethnic Germans exiled
    to Siberia & Central Asia
  • Britain & USSR agreement

    Britain & USSR agreement
    agreed to mutual aid (sharing resources) and not to make separate peace with Germany. (picture: churchill & stalin chilling)
  • Molotov announces War has begun

    Molotov announces War has begun
  • Germany Invades Russia

    Germany Invades Russia
    3M german troops, 3350 tanks
    Blitzkreig offensive - establlished a 2300km front that stretched from the Baltic sea (North) to the Black sea (south)
  • Blitzkrieg

    3M soldiers wt 7184 artillery guns, 3580 tanks & 740 000 horses invade USSR supported by Luftwaffe (German airforce)
  • Stava established

    Stava established
    by Stalin, responsible for military planning
  • Finland declares war on the USSR

    Finland declares war on the USSR
  • Hungary declares war on USSR

    Hungary declares war on USSR
  • Stalin withdraws to Dacha for 10 days

    Stalin withdraws to Dacha for 10 days
    country home, refused to see anyone, kinda shit idea when ur getting invaded, like maybe y'know instructing ppl on how to combat this literal invasion would be great but nah he's just chilling in his holiday home, though tbf looking at the photo, its pretty nice, I'd chill there, maybe not during a war like but yk, any other day
  • Minsk taken by Nazis

    Minsk taken by Nazis
    heading towards Moscow & Leningrad
  • Stalin returns to Moscow

    Stalin returns to Moscow
    Politburo members visit him in his dacha and he agrees to go
  • GKO established by Politburo

    GKO established by Politburo
    State Defence Committee, estbalished by Politburo as Stalin was in Dacha, civilian body responsible for the organisation & coordination of the party, the state, military organisations & the economy during wartime, led by a small group of 5 members (picture) which rose to 8 in February 1942
  • Stalin reassumes authority

    Stalin reassumes authority
    as head of Government, leader of GKO and Leader of Stava
  • Stalin 1st Wartime address

    Stalin 1st Wartime address
    calls for unity
  • Stalin becomes 'supreme war leader'

    Stalin becomes 'supreme war leader'
    overall military command
  • Period: to

    Russia in WW2

  • Period: to

    Siege of Leningrad

    3M residents & 200 000 red army defend the city, Stalin stays even though the government moves, 1M die
  • Bread rations at 125g

    Bread rations at 125g
  • 200 000 die of cold & starvation in Leningrad

    200 000 die of cold & starvation in Leningrad
    in January & February alone!
  • Order 227

    Order 227
    'Not one step backwards' anyone who retreated or fell behind was shot on sight, caused death of 150 000, NKVD formed blocking units behind front lines to ensure this
  • 69 000 Turkic Karachaians exiled

    69 000 Turkic Karachaians exiled
    to siberia & central asia
  • 90 000 Kalmyks exiled

    90 000 Kalmyks exiled
  • 340 000 Balkans exiled

    340 000 Balkans exiled
  • 500 000 Chechens & Ingush exiled

    500 000 Chechens & Ingush exiled
  • 180 000 Crimean Tartars exiled

    180 000 Crimean Tartars exiled
  • 800 000 dead in Leningrad

    800 000 dead in Leningrad
    buried in mass graves, really horrific
  • Zhukov sent to Odessa

    Zhukov sent to Odessa
    demoted to an inferior post after the war, Stalin's way of belittling the success of military commanders to make sure all the focus was on him (petty), yes that is the picture from the Death of Stalin, it helps me remember okay (ง •_•)ง
  • Period: to


    cultural policy of the Soviet Union during the Cold War period following World War II, calling for stricter government control of art and promoting an extreme anti-Western bias.
  • Marriage to foreigners banned

    Marriage to foreigners banned
    way of getting rid of western influences
  • Director of Jewish Theatre Moscow killed

    Director of Jewish Theatre Moscow killed
    Solomon Mikhoels, Stalin starts targeting Jews post-war, killed in mysterious car accident, also found this cool pic of him and Albert Einstein!
  • Zhdanov dies of heart failure

    Zhdanov dies of heart failure
    1000s of party officials & managers thought to be his supporters sent to gulags, Stalin would later blame Zhdanov's death on Kremlin doctors and "Zionist" conspirators. a Soviet Communist Party leader, and cultural ideologist. After World War II, Zhdanov was thought to be the successor-in-waiting to Joseph Stalin but died before him. He has been described as the "propagandist-in-chief" of the Soviet Union
  • Molotov & Kalinin's jewish wives arrested

    Molotov & Kalinin's jewish wives arrested
    they were politburo members! and their husbands were just like "yeah sound Stalin lad, whatever you say mate" (picture: molotov and kalinin hanging out with stalin whilst their wives suffer in Beria's basement)
  • Period: to

    Leningrad Affair

    purge of Communist Party and government officials in Leningrad and the surrounding region. The purge occurred several months after the sudden death of Andrey A. Zhdanov (Aug. 31, 1948), who had been the Leningrad party boss as well as one of Joseph Stalin’s most powerful lieutenants in the post-war period.
  • Purge in Georgia

    Purge in Georgia
    weird cuz it was Stalin's hometown BUT it was also that bitch Beria's hometown, seen as him putting him back in his place after gaing power as head of NKVD in the war
  • Doctors Plot

    Doctors Plot
    100s of doctors arrested & tortured, 1000s of ordinary jews rounded up and deported to new labour camps
  • NKVD splits into MDV & MGB

    NKVD splits into MDV & MGB
    NKVD still exists it just has 2 departments
    Ministry for Internal Affairs (MDV) - in charge of domestic security & gulags
    Ministry for State Security - in charge of counter-intelligence & espoinage
  • New Party Programme

    delivered at 22nd Party Congress. stated: USSR had already built socialism and was on way to communism, Party for whole people; not dictatorship of the proletariat, accountable to the membership, limits on terms served and rotation of office, Party to be the key institution in the march towards communism, Communist society complete by 1980, 1970 no housing shortage, USSR will have overtaken the US per capita production by 1970, By 1980 the real income per head will have increased by over 250%