Russian Revolution

  • 1894

    1894
    Czar Alexander III dies after a sudden illness and his son, Nicholas II, becomes the ruler of Russia
  • 1895

    1895
    Lenin is arrested, kept in solitary confinement for 13 months, and then exiled to Siberia for three years.
  • 1896

    1896
    Nicholas II crowned czar of Russia
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    1903

    The Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) meeting in which the Party splits into two factions: Mensheviks ("minority") and Bolsheviks ("majority")
  • 1904

    1904
    After having four girls, Czarina Alexandra gives birth to a son, Alexei.
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    1905

    Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg begins the 1905 Russian Revolution, The October Manifesto, issued by Czar Nicholas II, brings an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution by promising civil liberties and an elected parliament (Duma).
  • 1906

    1906
    A constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is created, reflecting the promises made in the October Manifesto.
  • 1914

    1914
    World War I begins
  • 1915

    1915
    Czar Nicholas II assumes supreme command of the Russian Army.
  • 1916

    1916
    Rasputin is murdered
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    1917

    The February Revolution begins with strikes, demonstrations, and mutinies in Petrograd (also called the March Revolution if following the Gregorian calendar).
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    1917

    Czar Nicholas II abdicates and includes his son. The following day, Nicholas' brother, Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. Provisional Government formed
    Lenin returns from exile and arrives in Petrograd via a sealed train
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    1917

    The July Days begin in Petrograd with spontaneous protests against the Provisional Government; after the Bolsheviks unsuccessfully try to direct these protests into a coup, Lenin is forced into hiding.
  • 1917

    1917
    Alexander Kerensky becomes Prime Minister of the Provisional Government.
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    1917

    The Kornilov Affair, a failed coup by General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Russian Army
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    1917

    The October Revolution - the Bolsheviks take over Petrograd (also called the November Revolution if following the Gregorian calendar)
    The Winter Palace, the last holdout of the Provisional Government, is taken by the Bolsheviks; the Council of People's Commissars (abbreviated as Sovnarkom), led by Lenin, is now in control of Russia
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    1918

    The new Bolshevik government converts Russia from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar turning February 1 into February 14
  • 1918

    1918
    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Germany and Russia, is signed and takes Russia out of World War I
  • 1918

    1918
    The Bolshevik Party changes its name to the Communist Party
  • 1918

    1918
    The capital of Russia is changed from St. Petersburg to Moscow
  • 1918

    1918
    Russian civil war begins
  • 1918

    1918
    Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed
  • 1918

    1918
    An assassination attempt leaves Lenin seriously wounded
  • 1920

    1920
    Russian civil war ends
  • 1922

    1922
    Stalin is appointed General Secretary
  • 1922

    1922
    Lenin suffers first stroke
  • 1922

    1922
    Lenin suffers second stroke and retires from politics
  • 1922

    1922
    The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) established
  • 1924

    1924
    Lenin dies; Stalin will become his successor
  • 1925

    1925
    Stalin publicly attacks Trotsky for being unfaithful to "Leninism."
  • 1926

    1926
    Birth of Stalin's third child, Svetlana
  • 1926

    1926
    At the Fifteenth Party Congress, Stalin attacks the "United Opposition" of Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Trotsky.
  • 1927

    1927
    Kamenev and Zinoviev expelled from the Party; Trotsky expelled and sent to Central Asia.
  • 1929

    1929
    Stalin begins assault on Bukharin
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    1929

    ·Bukharin removed from the Politburo
    ·Stalin announces "liquidation of the kulaks as a class"; collectivization begins in earnest.
  • 1931

    1931
    Terrible famine across the Soviet Union; millions die
  • 1932

    1932
    Suicide of Nadezhda
  • 1934

    1934
    Murder, by Stalin's agents, of Sergei Kirov. Beginning of "Great Terror," which continues until 1938.
  • 1935

    1935
    ·Zinoviev, Kamenev, and others are arrested, accused of complicity in Kirov's assassination.
  • 1936

    1936
    First "Show Trial." Zinoviev, Kamenev, and their allies confess and are executed.
  • 1937

    1937
    ·Purge of the army begins, top generals are tried and executed
  • 1939

    1939
    ·At Eighteenth Party Congress, Stalin announces end of the Great Terror.
  • 1940

    1940
    Trotsky assassinated, by Stalin's agents, in Mexico City.
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    1942

    Battle of Stalingrad. Germans are defeated, marking the turning point in the war.
  • 1945

    1945
    Hitler commits suicide in bombed-out Berlin, ending war in Europe. Red Army controls all of Eastern Europe.
  • 1945

    1945
    United States uses atomic bomb against Japan, bringing an end to the war in the Pacific.
  • 1948

    1948
    Communists seize power in Czechoslovakia, cementing Soviet control of Eastern Europe.
  • 1949

    1949
    Soviets explode their first atomic bomb.
  • 1949

    1949
    Stalin celebrates his seventieth birthday.
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    1950

    Sino-Soviet Treaty signed
    Korean War
  • 1953

    1953
    Announcement of Jewish "Doctors' Plot" against Stalin, plans for new wave of terror.
  • 1953

    1953
    Death of Stalin