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Timeline of Events Discussed in the IB Course "Peacemaking, Peacekeeping"

  • Lenin's Brother Hanged

    Lenin's brother, Alexander Ulyanov, is hanged for plotting to kill Czar Alexander III.
  • Czar Alexander III Dies

    Czar Alexander III dies and his son, Nicholas II, becomes the ruler of Russia.
  • Lenin Is Exiled

    Lenin is arrested, kept in solitary confinement for 13 months, and then exiled to Siberia for three years.
  • Nicholas II Crowned Czar of Russia

  • RSDLP Splits Into Two Factions

    The Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) meeting is held. The party splits into two factions: Mensheviks ("minority") and Bolsheviks ("majority").
  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg begins the Russian Revolution.
  • Czar Nicholas II Issues The October Manifesto

    The October Manifesto, issued by Czar Nicholas II, brings an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution by promising civil liberties and an elected parliament (Duma).
  • Russian Constitution Is Created

    A constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is created, reflecting the promises made in the October Manifesto.
  • WWI Begins

  • Rasputin Is Murdered

  • March Revolution Begins

    The March Revolution begins with strikes, demonstrations, and mutinies in Petrograd.
  • Provisional Government Is Formed In Russia

    Czar Nicholas II abdicates and includes his son. The following day, Nicholas' brother, Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. Provisional Government is formed.
  • Lenin Returns

    Lenin returns from exile and arrives in Petrograd via a sealed train.
  • July Days Begin

    The July Days begin in Petrograd with spontaneous protests against the Provisional Government; after the Bolsheviks unsuccessfully try to direct these protests into a coup, Lenin is forced into hiding.
  • The October Revolution

    The October Revolution: The Bolsheviks take over Petrograd
  • Winter Palace Is Taken By The Bolsheviks

    The Winter Palace, the last holdout of the Provisional Government, is taken by the Bolsheviks; the Council of People's Commissars, led by Lenin, is now in control of Russia.
  • Pres. Wilson Proposes his 14 Points To Congress

  • Wilson' 14 Points

    Wilson proposes his 14 Points to congress. Wilson wished to make the world a more peaceful place through his 14 points.
  • Russia Is Out of WWI

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Germany and Russia, is signed and takes Russia out of World War I.
  • Bolshevik Party Changes its Name to the Communist Party

  • Russian Civil War Begins

  • Czar Nicholas II and His Family are Executed

  • Assassination Attempt Leaves Lenin Seriously Injured

  • Armistace Signed

    Signed by Germany and the Allies, ending WWI.
  • Paris Peace Conference Begins

  • Treaty of Versailles is Signed

    Signed by Germany and the Allies.
  • Treaty of St. Germain is Signed

    Signed by the allies and the Republic of Austria.
  • Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Signed

    Signed by the Allies and Bulgaria. Required Bulgaria to cede several territories.
  • US Fails to Ratify Treaty of Versailles

    Henry Cabot Lodge and Alfred Beveridge strongly denounced the treaty, especially Article X which would make the US support all of the League's actions.
  • Treaty of Trianon Signed

    Signed between the Allies and Hungary.
  • Treaty of Sèvres Signed

    Signed by the Allies and the Ottoman Empire.
  • Russian Civil War Ends

  • Treaty of Riga

    The Treaty of Riga ended the Russo-Polish war and set their mutual border.
  • Period: to

    Franco-Polish Alliance

    A military alliance between France and Poland.
  • Period: to

    The Washington Naval Conference

    A conference that ended the arms race between US and Japan by setting a ship ratio between US, UK, and Japan of 5:5:3.
  • Stalin Appointed General Secretary

  • Treaty of Rapallo Signed

    Treaty between Germany and Russia, denouncing the claims made by the Paris Peace Treaties.
  • Lenin Retires From Politics

    After his second stroke in May, Lenin retires.
  • The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) Established

  • Period: to

    Ruhr Crisis

    When Germany missed a reparation payment, France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr reagion. Germany used passive resistance until they agreed to go with the TOV. Then, France withdrew.
  • Lenin Dies

    Stalin will become his successor.
  • Franco-Czech Defense Alliance Signed

    Signed by France and Czechoslovakia.
  • Mussolini Elected

    Facism grew very very popular and Mussolini won the election by a landslide.
  • Locarno Treaties Signed

    Locarno divided borders in Europe into two categories: western, which were guaranteed by Locarno treaties, and eastern borders of Germany with Poland, which were open for revision, thus leading to Germany's renewed claims to the German-populated Free City of Danzig and mixed ethnic Polish territories approved by the League of Nations including the Polish Corridor, and Upper Silesia.
  • Germany joins the League of Nations.

  • Geneva Naval Conference

    the Big 5 met to discuss and revise the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact Signed

    62 countries signed the agreement to not have war as national policy.
  • Stock Market Crashes

    The biggest sign of the Great Depression starting. Germany was hurt because the loans from the US stopped coming in.
  • Period: to

    Manchuria Crisis

    The Japanese economy was hurting badly and there were no risks to invading Manchuria because the League was useless and everyone was fending for themselves because of the Great Depression.
  • Period: to

    Geneva Disarmament Conference

    31 nations attended to discuss disarmament. The conference failed for many reasons, including the fact that several nations absolutely did not want disarmament.
  • Japan Leaves the League of Nations

  • Adolf Hitler is Named Chancellor of Germany

  • Germany Leaves the League of Nations

  • USSR Joins the League of Nations

  • Italy Invades Abyssinia

  • London Naval Treaty

    US, UK, France, Japan, and Italy met in 1935 to renegotiate the London Naval Conference. It failed because Japan walked out, they didn't want disarmament.
  • Germany Occupies Rhineland

  • Rome-Berlin Axis

    Coalition between Italy and Germany.
  • Italy Leaves the League of Nations