Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who is very well known for his work on political theory. Hobbes believed that the only true government was absolute monarchy and that people were born selfish.
Gunpowder plot was a plot to blow up the House of Parliament in order to kill the king and as many Parliament members as possible. The plan failed all the plotters were caught and executed.
John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists in his time. He is also known for his contribution to the constitution that gives man the natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Charles I Beheaded
King Charles I was beheaded for treason at the end of the English Civil War. He was executed because he took part in war against Parliament and the Roundheads.
The Glorious Revolution was a peaceful transfer of power between James II and William of Orange and Mary. It was called the Glorious Revolution because there was no bloodshed or conflict.
Adam Smith was a Scottish political economist and philosopher. He was very famous for his book “Wealth of Nations” which contributed to the foundation of modern economic theories. He is known as the Father of Capitalism.
The “Spinning Jenny” was invented by James Hargreaves. It was named after his daughter, you guessed it-Jenny! This machine spun cotton into threads to weave into cloth.
Citizens attacked took over Bastille for guns and gunpowder and it led to factions controlling the city of Paris. 18 died, 73 wounded, and that’s not including the 7 guards that were killed. French celebrate Bastille day on July 14.
National Assembly Night Session
The National Assembly met in a response to a report that said everything chaos. The feudal regime was abolished because of this. The flag was changed to the tricolor.
March on Versailles
It was a demonstration of Parisian women’s revolt over taxes on bread. They marched to Versailles and the guards became overwhelmed and they forced the royal family back to Paris. The royal family became under house arrest.
Royal Family Attempt to Escape
After the March on Versailles the royal family disguise themselves and tries to flee from Paris. With the help of a Swedish Count Hans Axelvon Fusen they were able to get as far as the Luxembourg border. The King gets recognized at Varennes and gets forced back to Paris and put in jail.
He citizens the Vendee Region revolted against the Revolutionary Government’s attacks on the church and compensation order of 300,000 troops. The revolt was eventually put down. Between 20,000 to 50,000 Vendeen citizens were killed and more captured and killed later.
Napoleon launched successful government overthrow. He admired Julius Caesar honored his title, “First Consul.” In 1802 he named himself, “Consul for Life” and two years after he named himself, “Emperor.”
Napoleon Establishes Bank of France
Napoleon establishes the countries official economic system. This was needed because France hadn’t had a national bank system and the country was in great debt from the Revolution so they needed a way to get back on their feet.
Napoleon Crowned Emperor
Napoleon was crowned Emperor of France by the Pope. There were rumors that he took the crown from the Pope and put it on himself. And by doing this it meant that since the Pope represented the church, Napoleon was showing that he was higher and more powerful than the church.
Abolition of Slave Trade
In 1807, the Abolition of Slavery Bill was finally passed. After several hard years of perseverance William Wilberforce didn’t let up and got the vote in his favor.
Michael Sader Introduces Child Labor Bill
Micheal Sader introduced a bill in parliament to limit the hours to ten that children under 18 work. Parliament did not pass it but one of exclamations was that the child’s bones aren’t fully developed at that age and their knees bend inward from standing too long.
Abolition of Slavery
In 1833, the abolition of slavey act was passed because of Wilberforce’s hard work in persuading Parliament. Olaudah Equiano wrote an auto biography on his experience as a slave and became a slavery abolitionist and John Newton became one too after writing Amazing Grace.
Chartists Reform Parliament
William Lovett was a Chartist that wrote a drafted bill for Parliamentary reform. The reform was for Parliament to let all men vote, for equal electoral districts, abolition of requirement to own property, and should be paid. The Chartists also wanted a secret ballot.
British kept selling opium to China even though it was illegal. Chinese took measures to stop the trade which led to a mostly naval battle at sea with the British who destroyed the Chinese. This led to the Treaty of Nanjing and the British gained Hong Kong.
This machine was invented by Elias Hones and Isaac Singer. The sewing machine made sewing clothes more efficient by going faster and not making mistakes while sewing the thread.
Year of Revolutions
The Year of Revolutions was a series of political uprises across Europe. It was the most widespread revolutionary wave in Europe ever. They were all put down and failed but their ideas of freedom and equality lived on.
The “June Days” was violent revolt for four days. It was caused by worker groups unrest and the rising economic and financial issues. They said the government had betrayed the revolution and wanted a redistribution of wealth. The workers retreated to the barricades but the revolt was down and failed.
Crystal Palace Exhibition
The crystal palace was the largest enclosed space in the world when it built and received 14,000 visitors from around the world. It was built to showcase Britain’s progress and accomplishments during the Industrial Revolution. This building had 300,00 pages of glass but burned down in 1936.
Treaty of Kanagawa
After the gunboat diplomacy in 1853, the Japanese are convinced to open to the world. They agreed to trade with the U.S. Soon after, Britain, Holland, and Russia get trading rights with Japan.
London Necropolis Train
One of England’s first 19 century train was used to transport corpses and mourners to a burial ground outside the city to a place called “London’s Necropolis.” But eventually people wanted their dead loved ones closer. And the railway was damaged during an air raid so they shut down the train transport.
Origin of Species
Charles Darwin, an evolutionist, published his famous book the “Origin of Species.” This book was said to be the start or foundation of evolution in biology. And that this book opened up people’s minds to what they believed in.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the first telephone in America. But Marconi was the first to create the telegraph. Nikolai Tesla invented the first radio.
The Zulu people resisted the British colonization. The British invaded Zulu territory. The British annexed the Zulu kingdom.
The leaders of various European countries met in Berlin. They called this meeting in order to divide land in Africa peacefully. They also discussed trade routes and established boundary rules.
The first car was made by Karl Benz and his wife in Germany. It was the first stationary gasoline engine. He created a gas powered horseless carriage.
Nicholas ll crowned Czar
Nicholas ll succeeded his father to the throne November 1, 1894. He was crowned Czar in Moscow on May 26, 1896. Nicholas was Russia’s last Czar before the monarchy feel.
A group of anti-foreign society members arranged to get rid of foreigners in China. They protested the western presence. Europe, America, and Japanese forces stopped the rebellion.
In South Africa, British met opposition with Dutch settlers. They both wanted to claim the Suez Canal and gold deposit so they went to war. The British outnumbered the Boer forces and took over their territory, the Union of South Africa, and inflicted British control.
Two bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio named Wilbur and Orville Wright, invented the first airplane. Their first flight lasted 59 seconds. This took place in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
On “Bloody Sunday” in St. Petersburg Russia, thousands of workers went to peacefully present a petition to the Czar and they were led by Father Gapon. They were all gunned down by the Imperial guard and 96 ended up dead with 300 wounded. This weakened support for the Czar and the government and signaled a revolution.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand is said to be the spark that ignited the fire to World War 1. He was killed by Gavrilo Princip. Austria then threatened to invade Serbia and Russia mobilized which essentially started the war.
World War I
World War I was a war between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. The Allied Powers consisted of the U.S., Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. The Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
The Schlieffen Plan
This was Germany’s plan to cross through Belgium to heavy attack France before they were ready. Once France was taken out, they could focus their troops on Russia. But France ended being ready for the attack and the Schlieffen Plan failed.
The Armenian genocide was constant killing of the Armenian by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. In 1915, the Turkish government made a plan to kill all the Armenians. By the 1920s, between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians had died.
The Assassination of Grigori Rasputin
The conspirators, led by Prince Felix Yusupov, invited Rasputin to a party in an attempt to kill him. They offered him wine with poison in it but it seemed to have no effect on Rasputin. So Felix shoots him and goes to pick up his body but then Rasputin chokes Felix and runs away. Felix then shoots him again and Rasputin fell and they began beating him repeatedly. Then they wrap him in a carpet rug and throw him in a nearby river where he soon after dies of hypothermia.
Citizens protested the streets of Petrograd March 8, 1917. The police were ordered to shoot rioters but refused. The Czar’s orders were continually defied and the government even refused to obey. The Czar was forced to abdicate the throne March 15, 1917
The Bolsheviks attacked the provisional government on November 6, 1917. The government collapsed and Lenin established communism. He made private property illegal.
Representation of the People Act
This act made it possible for women over the age 30 to be able to vote. This also made it possible for all men to be able to vote. Previously, only men who owned property could vote.
The Red Baron’s Death
Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron was the best recorded fighter pilot in World War 1. On November 23, 1916 he took down Lanoe Hawker who was the head of the famous Flying Aces. During the war, on April 4, 1918 he flew over enemy lines pursing an enemy plane and was shot down. He survived the crash landing but died on the ground shortly after. He had 80 combat victories which is more than any other pilot in the war.
The Constituent Assembly first convened in St. Petersburg, Russia. Lenin renamed the Bolshevik Party to the Communist Party to win the support of more people. The communists only won 175 vote of 700 votes so Lenin shut down the Constituent Assembly because he didn’t want to share any power with anyone.
Russian Civil War
The White army who consisted of aristocrats, royalists, clergy, and army officers went to war against the Red army and Lenin and all the communists. The war lasted from 1918 to 1921. The communists and the Red army were able to win because the White army was very divided and the Red army controlled key cities and Trotsky’s tough leadership led them to a victory.
In 1918, enemies of Lenin tried to assassinate him. He launched the “Red Terror” against any possible threats against him. 50,000 people were arrested and executed because of Lenin’s attempt to stop any efforts against him.
Treaty of Versailles
This was the primary treaty that ended World War 1. It was signed by the Allied Powers and Germany. A few of the terms were that Germany had to pay all war damage reparations and reduce its army to 100,000 men. Germany lost all of its overseas colonies, its air force, and navy. Germany also had to take blame and full responsibility for starting the war.