The Middle Ages 476-1492

  • Period: 300 to 1099

    the Early Middle Ages

    4th - 11th centuries
  • 313

    The Edict of Milan

    The Edict of Milan
    the persecution of Christians ended
    Constantine the Great (306-337)
  • 391

    Christianity became a state religion

    Christianity became a state religion in the Roman Empire
  • Period: 476 to 1492

    The Middle Ages

  • 756

    the Papal State

  • Period: 800 to 1400

    The Age of Chivalry

  • 962

    the Holy Roman Empire was established

    the Holy Roman Empire was established
    Otto I (936-973)
  • Period: 1000 to 1399

    the High Middle Ages

    11th - 14th centuries
  • Period: 1000 to 1299

    Investiture struggles

    the struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman emperors over the right to appoint and install the Roman Catholic prelates in their position and for overall power in western Christian world
  • Period: 1000 to 1099

    Reforms of Cluny

    A reform movement for the revival of the Church in the 11th century.
  • Period: 1000 to 1200


    the appointment of bishops and abbots in Roman Catholic Church,
    the ceremony by which they were installed in their clerical offices and properties. During this ceremony they were given the symbols of their authority – the ring and the staff
  • Period: 1000 to 1200


    the buying and selling of clerical offices
  • Period: 1000 to 1200

    the Romaneque style

  • Period: 1000 to 1099

    the population increased in Europe

    more lands were required
    New techniques and better tools were needed to cultivate the lands
  • Period: 1000 to 1200

    the appearnace of a legally unified peasant class

    11th-13th century
    in Western Europe – they had the same rights and obligation (right to move freely, inherit their lands, duties in kind and cash)
  • Period: 1000 to 1100

    the formation of craft guilds

    craftsmen of the same profession organized craft guilds in Western Europe
  • Period: 1000 to 1099

    The Levant trade

    Started by Venice, Genoa in the 11th century
    controlled the Mediterranean region, the trade with the Near and Far East
  • 1054

    the Great Schism

    the split of the Christian church into two
  • 1059

    the Church Council of Lateran

    deprived the emperors of the right to appoint the pope and gave this right to an independent college of churchmen
  • 1071

    the Battle of Manzikert

    the Battle of Manzikert
    the Byzantines were defeated by the Seljuq Turks and captured Jerusalem
  • 1075

    the Dictatus Papae by Gregory VII

    He declared that:
    Only the Pope has universal rights
    Prelates can be appointed and replaced only by the Pope
    The Pope has the right to remove the Emperor
    The Pope’s judgements cannot be questioned and changed
    No-one can judge over the Pope
    The Roman Catholic Church is infallible
  • Period: 1075 to 1122

    The first phase of investiture struggles

    Between Gregory VII (1073-85) and Henry IV (1056-1105)
    Also between Pope Callistus II (1119-1124) and Henry V (1106-1125)
  • 1076

    The synod of Worms

    At the synod of Worms: Henry IV rejected the decree of the Pope, refused to accept the Pope’s rule. German bishops voted that Pope Gregory VII should be deposed
  • 1076


    the act of punishing somebody by officially stating that they can no longer be a member of a Christian Church, especially the Roman Catholic Church
    Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV from the Church
  • 1077

    Seeking forgivness at Canossa

    Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV from the Church ==>> Henry sought forgiveness from the Pope at Canossa,waiting outside for three days as a barefoot penitent in the snow. Gregory forgave Henry.
  • 1095

    the Council of Clermont

    Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
  • Period: 1096 to 1291

    the Crusades

    holy wars for the recapture of the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks
  • Period: 1096 to 1099

    The First Crusade

    Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont (1095). He encouraged military support for Byzantine emperor against the Seljuk Turks and called for an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem
  • 1099

    Recapuring Jerusalem

    Crusaders recaptured Jerusalem.
  • Period: 1100 to 1300

    the Gothic style

  • 1122

    Concordat of Worms

    An agreement between the Church and a secular government:
    The right of the investiture was shared between the Pope and the Emperor:
    Pope: would appoint the prelates + install them into their offices by the ring and staff
    Emperor: would install them into their church estates by the sceptre
  • Period: 1146 to 1148

    The Second Crusade

  • 1161

    the German Hanse

    merchants of Hamburg + Lübeck formed an alliance
  • 1176

    The battle of Legnano

    Frederich I's (1155-1190) chavaliers were defeted by the ary of the League of Lombard created by Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
  • 1187

    the Battle of Hattin

    Turks reconquered Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land
  • Period: 1202 to 1204

    The Fourth Crusade

    The expedition wasn’t taken to the Holy Land but to Constatinople
    The city was sacked and the Latin Empire was established (1204 - 1261)
  • Period: 1204 to 1261

    the Latin Empire

  • 1212

    the Children's Crusade

    30 000 children set off from France andGermany to Jerusalem==>> they died, were captured, sold into slavery
  • 1215

    the Inquisition

    The establishment of the Inquisition = the court of the Church to find and punish heretics.
    It found the heretics and launched legal proceedings against them
  • 1241

    German Hanseatic League

    to control the northern and Baltic trade from Novgorod to London, and to the Flemish harbours
    to secure trade (protection against pirates, providing storage for the goods, establishing trading stations)
  • Period: 1250 to 1273

    the Great Interregnum

    The power of the emperor declined in the Holy Roman Empire,no legal emperor ==>> feudal anarchy, provinces became independent
  • 1291

    the Fall of Acre (Akkon)

    Acre fell into the hands of the Turks and it meant the end of the holy wars
  • Period: 1300 to 1499

    the Late Middle Ages

    14th - 15th centuries
  • Period: 1300 to 1500

    the Renaissance

    14th-16th century
  • Period: 1309 to 1377

    Avignon papacy

    the popes took up residence at Avignon, France, instead of at Rome, because of the current political conditions
  • 1356

    Golden Bull

    it granted the right of the election of the emperor + complete political independence to the 7 prince-electors ==>> confirmed the fragmentation of the HRE