March 1917 RevolutionKey Players - Tsar Nicholas II, Peasants
First of two revolutions in Russia 1917. Happened in then capital Petrograd. Army turned on the Tsar. Significance
-Resulted in establishment of Provisional Government because the Tsar abdicates,
Russia to 1941
Provisional GovernmentKey Players - Lvov, Kerensky
Provisional Government was established by the State Duma due to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. Provisional Government was unable to make decisions due to political factionism and breakdown of state structures. First ran by Lvov, then socialist Kerensky. Significance
-The Government promised strikes to become legalized and a Constituent Assembly with universal secret ballot.
April ThesesKey Players - Lenin
Issued just over a month after the February Revolution resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the collapse of Imperial Russia. Lennin saught to return after Revolution. Germany sent Lenin back to Russia in a seal train in hopes of creating political unrest. Significance
- The proletariat peasants to bring about the communist revolution.
- Seizure of the gentry land.
Kornilov AffairKey Players - Kornilov, Kerensky
Was an attempted coup d'état by the then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, in August 1917 against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Alexander Kerensky. -Kornilov was removed from his position
-Kerensky released the Bolsheviks including Trotsky
-Severed ties between Kerensky and military
The October/Bolshevik RevolutionKey Players - Bolsheviks, Provisional Government, Lenin October Revolution in Petrograd which overthrough the Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks.
Lenin's New GovernmentKey Players - Lenin Lenin wanted a Government with total control, where the people would not have a chance at choosing who takes office. Promised a Constituent Assembly would be formed. Introduced the Cheka. Significance
-Lenin had total control.
-Checka would kill, beat, anyone who went against the Bolsheviks.
Russian Civil War (1917-1923)Key Players - Bolsheviks, Red Army (Trotsky), White Army Bolshevik Red Army fought against the White Army, Reds were the victors and Russia became a communist country. Significance
-Russia became communist
-Lennin held power
Treaty of Brest-LitovskKey Players - Russia, Germany Treaty signed between Russia and Germany which marked Russia's exit from World War I. Significance
-Provided relief for the Bolsheviks who were fighting a Civil War
War CommunismKey Players - Lenin, Bolsheviks Policy adopted by the Bolsheviks with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food. Significance
-Black market emerged
-Worker strikes, rebellions
-Refusal of co-operating to produce goods.
New Economic PolicyKey Players - Lenin Lenin called it State Capitalism. Allowed some private ventures to reopen for private profit while the state still had control of banks, foreign trade and large industries. Significance
-Agriculture increased greatly
-Farmers now had an option to sell their surplus
-Heavy industry was growing a lot slower than agriculture
Treaty of RapalloKey Players - Russia, Germany Germany and Russia renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. Significance
-The two governments agreed to normalise their diplomatic relations
-To co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries
Five Year PlansKey Players - Stalin Created a series of centralized economic plans, which were based around rapid industrialization. Significance
Elimination of the Kulaks
Kellogg-Briand PactKey Players - France, United Kingdom, United States, Italy, others Was a pact mean to denounce war as a way to solve problems. Significance
-did not work well because it was unrealistic.
RapprochementKey Players - Russia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, France Russia signed a non aggressions pact with Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Finland. Same with Czechoslovakia and Romania and then signed a mutual assistance pact with France.
Russia Joining The League Of NationsKey Players - Russia, League of Nations Russia had a fairly stable country by 1934 and hadn't had any recent wars so they were accepted into League of Nations. Significance
-Russia became more involved with European and World affairs again.
The PurgesKey Players - Stalin Joseph Stalin arrests and executes any people who apposed or threaten him. Approximately 8-10 million people had been killed. Significance
-Showed the ruthless extent of Joseph Stalin.
Nazi-Soviet PactKey Players - Hitler and Stalin Pact that stated that if either countries became involved with war, both would stay on neutral terms with one another. Significance
Hitler eventually goes against the pact and invades Russia but the pact provided more time for Russia to prepare for it.