Russia: Reform and Reaction

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    Russia: Reform and Reaction

  • Alexander I

    Alexander I
    On March 24, 1801 Alexander I inherited the throne. He was open to liberal ideas; however, he changed his mind at the congress of Vienna and he joined the conservative powers in opposing liberal and nationalist impulses in Europe. Alexander I died in 1825.
  • Alexander II

    Alexander II
    Alexander II was born in Moscow on 17 April, 1818. He was brought up bearing in mind that one day he would inherit the throne. He came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War.
    He studied mathematics, physics, geography, history, political economy, statistics and law and developed a taste for art.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    The Decembrist revolt took place in Imperial Russia on 14 December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
  • Emancipation of serfs

    Emancipation of serfs
    Alexander II pressed from all sides, finally agreed to reforms. In 1861, he issued a royal decree that required emancipation, or freeing the serfs.
    (day and moth are inncorect)
  • Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin)

    Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin)
    Used false name "Lenin". Founder of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Leader of 1917 October Revolution.
    Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) was born at april 22, 1870 and died January 21, 1924.
  • March 1881

    March 1881
    In a cold day march 1881, terrorist hurled two bombs at Alexander's carriage. One struck down several guards. The second killed the leader known to some as the "czar emancipator."
  • Alexander III

    Alexander III
    Alexander III responded to his father's assassination by reviving the harsh methods of Nicholas. To wipe out liberals and revolutionaries, he increased the power of secret police, restored strict censorship, and exiled critics to Siberia. Russification: The czar launched a program of Russification aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-russian peoples within the empire. Alexander insted on one language, Russian, and one church, the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Nicolas II

    Nicolas II
    Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, son of Alexander III. He secured foreign capital to invest in transportation system and industry. Loans from France helped buid th Trans-Siberian Railroad.
    He got Coronated on May 26, 1896. Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.
  • War with Japan

    War with Japan
    The war began on Feb. 8, 1904, when the main Japanese fleet launched a surprise attack. War broke out between Russian and Japan. They Fought for Faith, the Czar, and Fatherland.
    Japan won.
  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday
    Bloody Sunday was a massacre on January 22
    in St. Petersburg, Russia, where unarmed, peaceful demonstrators marching to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II were gunned down by the Imperial Guard. Bloody Sunday was an event with grave consequences for the Tsarist regime, as the disregard for ordinary people shown by the massacre undermined support for the state.
  • Revolution of 1905

    Revolution of 1905
    Minority nationalities called for autonomy from Russia. Terrorists targeted officials, and some assassins were cheered as heroes by discontented Russians. At last the clamor grew so great that Nicholas was forced to announce sweeping reforms. In the October Manifesto, he promised "freedom of person, conscience, speech, assmbly, and union." He agreed to summon a Duma or elected national legislature. No law, he declared, would go into effect without approval by the Duma.
  • Peter Stolypin.

    Peter Stolypin.
    Nicholas then appointed a new prime minister, Peter Stolypin, Arrests, pogroms, and executions followed as the conservative Stolypin sought to restore order. Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant support, he introduced moderate land reforms.