800 b.c Latins migrated to Italy and settled along the Tiber River.Greek colonists to the south and Etruscans in the north shared the peninsula.
Rome was founded by twin brothers, Remus and Romulus, the sons of a Latin woman and the god Mars.
Romans drove out the Etruscan rulers and established a republicA republic: from the Latin res publica, “that which belongs to the people,” where people chose some of the officials.
Laws were made by 300 land-holding, upper-class patricians who made up the Senate.
The Romans felt a republic would prevent too much power from going to any one individual.
The first two consuls were Brutus and CollatinusThese two consuls only served one term and checked or limited each other’s power.
In times of war, a single dictator was given power, but only for six months.
By 270 B.C. Rome had conquered the entire peninsulaRoman citizens made good soldiers because they were raised to value courage and loyalty and to respect authority.
264 B.C. to 146 B.C., Rome fought the three Punic Wars against Carthage.Carthage ruled
the Western Mediterranean,
In the First Punic War, Rome won Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia.From 260 BC to 241 BC the Romans won key naval victories on the strength of their engineering and soldiery
The Second Punic WarIn 203 BC, Hannibal was forced to retreat to defend North Africa from Scipio
fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE.
In 58 B.C. Julius Caesar led his army into Gaul.A brilliant military leader, Caesar was feared by other generals after his success.
When the Senate ordered Caesar to disband his army, he instead led them across the Rubicon River and marched on Rome.
In March 44 B.C., Caesar was stabbed by his rivals, leading again to civil war.Caesar was remembered as a bold military leader, immortalized in a Shakespearean play and in military textbooks.
He once famously said, “Veni, vidi, vici.”
(“I came, I saw, I conquered.”)
Octavian He ruled until 14 A.D., ending the republic but creating a stable government.A well-trained civil service was hired, based on merit.
A census counted the people to collect taxes fairly.
A postal service, new roads,
Emperor Diocletian set out to restore order in the empire.To curb inflation he fixed prices on many goods and services. Sons were required to follow their father’s occupation and farmers to remain on their land.
Emperor Constantine took the throne and altered Europe’s future.He issued the Edict of Milan granting religious toleration to Christians. Christianity would later become the official religion of the empire.
He made Byzantium his capital, renaming it Constantinople. This New Rome shifted the center of power to the eastern empire.
the Emperor Constantine, the persecution of Christians ended.In A.D. 313 the Edict of Milan granted freedom of worship to citizens of the Roman empire.
Attila the Hun invaded Europe,Attila the Hun invaded Europe, savagely destroying anyone in his path.
Roman fallsRome's collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces.