Paula Caamaño Mato_G&H_4ºC

Timeline created by Paula.05
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    The Modern Age is the third of the historical periods into which world history is conventionally divided, between the 15th and 18th centuries. Its beginning can be placed in the fall of Constantinople (1453) or the discovery of America (1492), and the end of the French Revolution (1789) or at the end of the previous decade, after independence. From the United States (1776)
    The historiography discipline that studies it is called Modern History, and its historians, "modernists."
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    In 1733 started the process of mechanisation process with the John Kay’s flying shuttle. This invention increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics. Also, the productivity increased thanks to to the spinning machines: the spinning jenny in 1764 and the spinning mule in 1775 (Crompton).
  • Period: to

    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution (Britain-mid-18th century) led to a lot of changes and innovations. Was caused by the agriculture changes, demographic, technological and transport revolutions and the increase of trade and finalcial trade. It was a development of new industries (textile and iron) and the use of minerals as raw materials (coke coal and iron). Finally the consequences were a population growth and a urban development, the triumph of capitalism and changes in society and politics.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    In 1769 James Watt invented the steam engine. It is a more efficient machine. The steam engine use the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to machinery. The high pressure steam (boil water) is stored and later that high pressure steam will be used to maintain continuous movement. This invention led to a breakthrough for the industry. It was used for the industrial machinery, agriculture, mills, transport and mines.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    In 1776 Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations. It is the founding document of classical economics and, without a doubt, of economic liberalism and is one of the most important works of the economic discipline.
    Smith exposes his analysis on the origin of the prosperity of countries like England or the Netherlands. Develop economic theories, examines different systems of political economy; it also develops the idea of ​​a natural order.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The last step of the mechanisation process in the textile industry. In 1785 was invented the power loom by Edmund Cartwright. This invention increased dramatically the fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary History is the stage of the history following the Modern History. It is the period that goes from the Declaration of Independence of the United States or the French Revolution to the present day.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a social and political conflict and defended the idea of ​​ending absolutism. It began with the self-proclamation of the Third Estate as the National Assembly in 1789 and also because other facts (the impact of the Enlightenment, American Revolution, social, economic and financial crisis) and ended with the coup of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. It was divided in three phases: Constitutional Monarchy, Social Republic and Conservative Republic.
  • Period: to

    Constitutional monarchy

    The Constitutional Monarchy (1789-92) was the 1st phase of the French Revolution. It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie and they aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime and establish a moderate liberal monarchy, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution. They made a Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a Constitution and a Legislative Assembly (new laws to implement liberalism). This phase ended when Autria and Prussia arrived in Paris in September.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General was a legislative and consultative assembly and was an advisory body to the king. The 5th of may 1789 in Versailles there was a meeting of the Estates-General where there was a discussion that ended with the leave of the Third State. The reason of this was because the privileged estates demand a vote per estate rather than per representative (that was the idea who defend the Third state). In the 1st option the result would be 2 votes (privileged clases) to 1 (Third State).
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Third State was support in its idea of ​​the vote by representative by 2 nobles and 149 clergy which was a revolutionary action. Before this, on the 20th of June 1789, Louis XVI closed the door for them, trying to expel them of the Assembly. In response to the act od the king, these revolutionaries formed the National Assembly of France in a pavilion in Versailles, in a tennis court: Jeu de Paume. They promised to draft a constitution. They are going to led important changes for France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Between June and July the Assembly's proposals got more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got tenser and tenser. As a result of this, the 14th of July the Third State stormed the Bastille. It was a castle used as a state prison by the kings of France. At the moment of the storm there were only 7 prisoners in it, but there were a lot of weapons and gunpowder.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The French Revolution is divided in three phases and the first one is the Constitutional Monarchy from 1789 to 1792. It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie and they want to abolish Ancien Régime and established a moderate liberal monarchy. Their first step was the abolishment of feudalism by approving the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This document recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all the citizens (only men) in law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    On 5th October 1789 thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food) marched from the Paris' markets to Versailles, where the royal family lived, equipped with weapons and tools. They protested against the shortage of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing manorialism. As a result of their protest, the king abandoned Versailles and moved to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    In the Constitutional Monarchy from 1789 to 1792 was approved the first French constitution. It is a document based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. Due to the approbation of the constitution was formed the Legislative Assembly.
  • Period: to

    Social Republic

    The Social Republic (1792-1793) was the 2nd phase of the French Revolution. It was driven by radical bourgeoisie and they aspired to proclaim the Republic. They began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with the universal male suffrage and social laws. It started with an increasing of republican feelings that led to the stormed off Tuileries Palace and ended with a coup. It was divided into two different phases (or conventions).
  • Period: to

    Girondin Convention

    The Girondin Cenvention (1792-1793) was the first phase of the Social Republic controlled by the more moderate bourgeoisie. There was a National Convention, which was a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage. The execution of Louis XVI (21st January 1793) led to the formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe against revolutionaries, counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by privileged classes. It ended when the Jacobins seized the power.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    In 1791 established a constitutional monarchy in France, but not everyone was happy. The discontent of the royal family, the royalist and the privileged classes led to a succession of events. One of them was the War of the First Coalition. This was caused when the Legislative Assembly declares the war to Austria and Prussia.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The betrayal by the king (Flight to Varennes, June 1791) and the military invasion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies who fight against the Frean Revolution) led to the increasing of the republican feelings among the common people (san-culottes). These feelings led to sans-culottes to stormed of Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. After this, was declared a republic, the second phase of the Revolution (Social Republic, 1792-1794)
  • Period: to

    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobin Cenvention (1793-1794) was the second and last phase of the Social Republic controlled by the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie. They created a new constitution that recognised the popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality was enacted. The Committee of Public Safety controlled the executive power and was led by Robespierre. They neutralized their enemies through the mass levy and Reign of Terror. They also introduced social laws.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The Girondin Convention (1792-1793) controlled the first phase of the Social Republic (1792-1794). There was a new assembly, the National Convention. There was also the execution of Louis XVI and of the Queen Marie Antoinette. This led to the formation of an absolutist coalition of monarchies in Europe to fight against revolutionaries, counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by privileged classes.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror was a measure established by the Jacobins to neutralize their enemies (counter-revolutionary revolts and plots). It consisted of executions by guillotine under the Law of suspects
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    The Conservative Republic (1794-1799) was the third or the last phase of the French Revolution. It was driven by moderate bourgeoisie. They cancelled the Jacobins laws and drafted a new constitution (1795). The census suffrage was restored and the executive power was granted to a collegial government (Directory). The Directory was unestable due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people. This led to the coup of Napoleon, which ended with the French Revolution.
  • Period: to

    The Consulate

    The Consulate (1799-1804) was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. It aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie. There was established a new constitution (1800) of the new political system. There were also economic reforms and other reforms.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    After the 1795 constitution the directory was unstable due to the opposition of aristocracy and common people. Taking advantage of this context of crisis, Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire). It was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie. After this he started an authoritarian and autocratic rule. At this moment the French Revolution finished.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    There was a Consulate (1799-1804) and a Napoleonic Empire (1804-1815). The Napoleonic Consulate was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Here was accepted the Constitution of 1800 of a new political system. This document did not include the separation of powers and the declaration of rights. The liberties were very limited and the public opinions were censured. The states were organized in departments run by prefects. There were also economic reforms and other reforms.
  • Period: to

    Enclosure Acts

    One causes of the industrial revolution were the agriculture changes. They were a new land ownership structure, changes in the cultivation system and the introduction of new machines and crops. The new land ownership structure was the Enclosure Acts that was authorised by the British Parliament due to the rise in grain prices. This consisted on enclosure lands privately owned. It have good consequences (ex: improvements) and bad (poor farmers). More details: [https://youtu.be/pIJSisZ23p4]
  • Period: to

    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803 Napoleon began his conquest of Europe (he defeated most European monarchies) and in 1804 was crowned emperor by the Pope. The recipe for his success was a large army and new military tactics. In 1811 the Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith. After this a series of events (Failure on Russia, revolts in Spain, Waterloo, etc.) were going to lead to the fall of Napoleon. In 1815, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exile to Saint Elena.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    After the Consulate started the Napoleonic Empire from 1804 to 1815. In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe, which was very successful. In 1804, he was crowned emperor by the Pope.
    Napoleon defeated most European monarchies thanks to him large army and the use of new military tactics.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe. He conquered some countries in Europe and Spain was not in his sights until 1808. At this time, Napoleon invaded Spain and José Bonaparte (one of the emperor's brothers) was made king. The invasion of Spain was quite peculiar because Napoleon it gave the excuse of invading Portugal to conquest Spain.
  • Period: to

    Luddite movement

    The Industrial Revolution led to different consequences. One of the were the social movements that give rise to the Workers’ associations. From this association we can highlight the relief societies and the Luddite movement. It was a group of workers who were the first to protest in England in the early 19th century. There was a violent destruction of machinery caused by low wages and unemployment.
    Here there is a video with more data about the Loudit movement: [https://youtu.be/kqUezvo6oRA]
  • Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) was a meeting of the countries (Prussia, Russia, France, Britain and Austria) that defeated Napoleon. The organizer was Austrian Chancellor Metternich. They want to restore the absolutism and stop the spread of liberal ideas. They had established the ideological principles of the Restoration. In 1815, the Holly Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia, Prussia and Austria).
  • Period: to

    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815 the countries that defeated Napoleon (Prussia, Russia, France, Britain and Austria) formed the Congress of Vienna. They want to restore the absolutism and stop the spread of liberal ideas. The ideological principles of the Restoration were the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and the right of intervention. It consequences was the Holly Alliance Treaty (1815) and the change of borders and political powers in Europe.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    After Napoleon's success came his downfall. The Fall of Napoleon was provoked by some events such as failed invasions, revolts, etc. One of these events occurred in 1815. Here the imperial armies of the Napoleonic Empire were defeated by Great Britain and Prussia in the Battle of Waterloo. After this, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exile to Saint Helena.
  • Period: to

    Greek War of Independence

    Nationalist movements in the 19 th century in Europe led to the division of plurinational empires.
    The Greek War of Independence (1821-29):
    Greek was part of Ottoman Empire. They had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and dominated by people with different religion and culture. In 1822 the Greeks declared independence, but it wasn't recognized. In 1827 there was the Greek victory (thanks to Britain and France) and finally in 1830 their independence was recognized.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    In England the workers were prohibited to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions by the Combination Acts. But this changed in 1824 when it (Combination Acts) was abolished. This led to the creation of the trade unions (ex: Grand National Consolidated Union - 1834). They defended the rights of the workers such as the regulation of child labour.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    In 1829 Stephenson invented the steam locomotive. This machine used the steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This new form of transport system allows to carry more passengers and goods in less time and in a lower cost. It also boosted trade and helped to create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna didn't respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples. The nationalism and liberalism became the two main opposition forces. The movement began in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support. When they were successful, absolutism was replaced by a liberal system governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power, such as in France. It also can be unseccessful such as in Poland.
  • Period: to

    The Age of the revolutions

    The revolutionary wave of 1830 and the revolutionary wave of 1848 (The Spring of Nations) ended with the absolutism that had begun in 1815. The last one represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
  • Period: to

    The Belgian Revolution

    Nationalist movements in the 19 th century in Europe led to the division of plurinational empires.
    The Belgian Revolution (1830-1839):
    Belgium was part of the Kingdom of Netherlands (Kingdom of Holland + Belgium). From 1830 to 1839 there was an armed conflict after Belgium's declaration of independence . Finally, in 1839 the Belgium's independence was recognised and it became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    Zollverein
    The unification of Germany was from 1861 to 1871. Before the unification divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power. In 1834, Prussia created a customs union, called Zollverein. It united the majority of the Germanic states. After this event, were more that led to the unification of Germany.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    In this industrial revolution were different consequences, one of them were the new social movements. There were created worker's associations and the trade unions. In 1834 was founded the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, which brought together different types of workers. Their objectives were: defend the right of association, reduce the working day, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Autiran, Russian and Ottoman Empire) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy). The rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism led to the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires. In the Austrian Empire, the revolt of Vienna was based on liberal principles. There were also nationalistic uprisings. In France was a 2nd Republic and an adoption of democratic measures.
  • Period: to

    French Second Republic

    The revolutions of 1848 (The Spring of Nations) showed how countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and the creation of new liberal governments.
    In France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic. It adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    In the 18th century rise the demand of iron so a rise on the iron industry. There were: a new fuel which is the coke, new techniques: puddling, rolling, and finally the steel. In 1856 it was possible to manufacture steel (an alloy of iron and carbon) thanks to the Bessemer converter. The steel was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
  • Period: to

    Italian Unification process

    Nationalist movements in the 19 th century in Europe led to the unification of fragmented nations.
    Unification of Italy (1859-1870):
    Italy was divided into several states and Austria had annexed Lombardy-Venetia. In 1859, kingdom of Piedmont and Cavour started the unification (annexed Lombardy and uprising lead by Garibaldi). In 1861 Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866 Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed and Rome became the capital.
  • Period: to

    German Unification process

    Nationalist movements in the 19 th century in Europe led to the unification of fragmented nations.
    Unification of Germany (1861-1871):
    Before the unification divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power. In 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein). In 1848 was the 1st freely elected parliament. In 1861 there were new political figures. Finally, in 1871 was the proclamation of the 2nd German Empire with Wilhelm I.
  • First International

    First International
    The industrial revolution led to different consequences. One were the new social movements where the worker’s associations were created. Marxists and anarchists were involved in the proletarian internationalism. In 1867 was created the International Workingmen’s Association (First International) by a iniciative of Karl Marx. Thanks to this, marxism, anarchists and trade unions joined but in 1876 they splited because they ideological differences between then made it unworkable.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Karl Marx was a philosopher that created the Marxism which is opposed private property, denounced the explotation or workers, wanted to end capitalism, but advocated different types of revolution and different social models to replace it. In 1867, Karl Marx published Das Kapital which is a critique of political economy and is a fundamental theoretical text in the philosophy, economics and politics of Karl Marx.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The industrial revolution led to different consequences. One were the new social movements where the worker’s associations were created. After the First International, in 1889 was founded the Second International by the Marxists to coordinated the various socialist parties. It established some identity symbols of the labour movement, for example the anthem ‘The Internationale’ and the 1 May holiday (International Workers’ Day).