Mueggenborg Unit 4: 1750-1914

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    Industrial Revolution

    Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.
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    Toussaint L'Ouverture

    Was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen led to the establishment of the independent black state of Haiti, transforming an entire society of slaves into a free, self-governing people. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
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    French and Indian War

    War between Great Britain and France. It led up to the Seven Years War
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    Seven Years War

    Global military conflicting involving most of the Great Powers, affecting North and Central America, Europe, the West African Coast, India and the PHillipines. The cause of the French and Indian War, Pomeranian War, the Third Carnatic War, and Third Silesian War.
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    Watt's Steam Engine

    was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. It was fuel efficient, did burn natural resources.
  • Invention of the Spinning Jenny

    Is a multi-spool spinning frame. It was invented by James Hargreaves. The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.
  • Water Frame

    Is a water powered spinning frame that was used to increase production of textiles in factories.
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    Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

    The people of France generally regarded the Austrian alliance with dislike, and Marie-Antoinette was seen as an unwelcome foreigner, once they got married during the Seven Years War. ouis-Auguste's shyness meant that he failed to consummate the union, much to his wife's distress, while his fear of being manipulated by her for Imperial purposes caused him to behave coldly towards her in public.
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    American Revolution

    13 North American colonies join together to gain independence from Great Britain, then became the United States of America. The U.S tries to govern themselves and British as well tries to govern them across seas. British send troops to U,S, and the American Revolutionary War begins as the U.S tries to defend
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    French Revolution

    was a period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history. The absolute monarchy that ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from liberal political groups and the masses on the streets. Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. There were only 7 inmates in the prison and it was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Its a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of natural right, the rights of man are universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself. Although it establishes fundamental rights for French citizens and "all the members of the social Body", it addresses neither the status of women nor slavery; despite that, it is a precursor document
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    Haitian Revolution

    Was a period of conflict in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, that eliminated slavery and found the Haitian Republic. Hundreds of rebellions occured in the New World during the centuries of slavery but St. Dominge was succesful in achieving permanent independence under a new nation.
  • Whitney's Cotton Gin

    Is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds (usually performed by hand). he fibers are processed into cotton goods, and the seeds may be used to grow more cotton, to produce cottonseed oil, or, if they are badly damaged, are disposed of. The gin uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams.
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    Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan

    was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
  • Britain Takes over India

    India was colonized during the early 1800s, the Industrial Revolution was beginning and Great Britain needed raw materials and resources. Therefore, economic profit was a huge driving force behind England's actions regarding India.
    Nationalism was also a factor in the colonization of India. As with many other European nations, Great Britain came out of the French revolution with a strong sense of pride and the urge to prove itself a world power.
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    Was a military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution (emperor of the french). His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for the wars he led against a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars
  • End of Atlantic Slave Trade

    Was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed with the long title "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself; that had been abolished in England itself in Somersett's Case in 1772, but remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.
  • Britain outlaws Slave Trade

    was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the long title "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself; that had been abolished in England itself in Somersett's Case in 1772, but remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.
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    Mexican Independence

    was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents.
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    Congress of Vienna

    was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. This objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political map.
  • Waterloo

    An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by combined armies of the Seventh Coalition, an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher. The defeat at Waterloo put an end to Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days' return from exile.
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    Brazilian Independence

    Its a series of political events, disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Kingdom.
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    Greek Independence

    Was a successful war of independence by the Greek Revolutionaries, with later assistance from several European powers, against the Ottoman Empire.
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    Opium Wars

    1st- 1839-1842
    2nd- 1856-1860
    Were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.
  • Invention of the Telegraph

    Is the long-distance transmission of messages via some signalling technology. Telegraphy requires messages to be converted to a code which is known to both sender and receiver.
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    Revolutions in Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Italy

    The Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. Much of the revolutionary activity was of a nationalist character: the empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Romanians, Croats, Italians, and Serbs, all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities.
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    Taiping Rebellion

    Was a widespread civil war in southern China, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, against the ruling Qing Dynasty. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
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    Crimean War

    Was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.
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    Sepoy Rebellion

    Began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.
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    Suez Canal

    Is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.
  • Emancipation of the Russian Serfs

    Was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. The reform mounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by peasants of the Russian Empire.
  • Meiji Restoration

    was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
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    Imperialization of Africa

    was a process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period and WWI
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    Boxer Rebellion

    was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society," in China opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism.
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    Panama Canal

    Is a 48 mi ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.
  • African National Congress

    has been South Africa's governing left-wing political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP), since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a "disciplined force of the left". It was founded to increase the rights of the black South African population.
  • Overthrow of the Qing Dyansty

    The Qing Dynasty was overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, when the Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated on behalf of the last emperor, Puyi.
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    Afrikaners' Great Trek

    Was an eastward and north-eastward migration away from British control in the Cape Colony. The Great Trek itself led to the founding of numerous Boer republics, the Natalia Republic, the Orange Free State Republic and the Transvaal being the most notable.
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    Aswan Dam

    Is an embankment dam situated across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. t aimed to increase economic production by further regulating the annual river flooding and providing storage of water for agriculture, and later, to generate hydroelectricity. The dam has had a significant impact on the economy and culture of Egypt.