Middle Ages

  • Sep 25, 1066

    William the Conqueror invades England

    was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. The descendant of Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.
  • Sep 24, 1150

    paper is first mass-produced in Spain

    Both Spain and Italy claim to be the first to manufacture paper in Europe. Muslim conquest of Spain brought paper making to Europe.
  • Sep 25, 1215

    Magna Carta

    is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
  • Sep 25, 1270

    end of the Crusades

    The crusading movement came to an end by the close of the thirteenth century.
  • Sep 25, 1348

    The Plague

    The bubonic plague mainly affects rodents, but fleas can transmit the disease to people. Once people are infected, they infect others very rapidly. Plague causes fever and a painful swelling of the lymph glands called buboes, which is how it gets its name.
  • Sep 25, 1378

    first appearance of Robin Hood in literature

    Traditionally depicted as being dressed in Lincoln green, he is often portrayed as "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor" alongside his band of Merry Men
  • Sep 25, 1387

    Chaucer writes The Canterbury Tales

    Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories in a frame story, between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury.
  • Sep 25, 1455

    War of the Roses

    The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. They were fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, the houses of Lancaster and York. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, although there was related fighting before and after this period.
  • Sep 25, 1485

    first printing of Le Morte d’ArthurPolitical and Social Events

    Le Morte d'Arthur is a compilation by Sir Thomas Malory of traditional tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table. Malory interprets existing French and English stories about these figures and adds original material (the Gareth story).
  • Sep 25, 1485

    First Tudor king, Henry VII, is crowned

    Henry won the throne when his forces defeated the forces of Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III.