Medicine Timeline

  • 180

    Connection between Nerves

    Galen studies the connection between paralysis and severance of the spinal cord.
  • Period: Jan 1, 838 to Jan 1, 870

    First Encyclopedia of Medicine Written

    Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, a pioneer in the field of child development, writes the first encyclopedia of medicine in Arabic.
  • Period: Jan 1, 865 to Jan 1, 925


    Rhazes pioneers pediatrics, and makes the first clear distinction between smallpox and measles in his al-Hawi.
  • Jan 1, 1021

    Book of Optics

    Alhazen completes his Book of Optics, which made important advances in ophthalmology and eye surgery, as it correctly explained the process of visual perception
  • Jan 1, 1030

    Book of Healing

    Avicenna writes The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, in which he establishes experimental medicine and evidence-based medicine. The Canon remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 18th century. The book's contributions to medicine includes the introduction of clinical trials and many other things.
  • Jan 1, 1248

    Veterinary Medicine

    Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany and pharmacy, studied animal anatomy and medicine, and was a pioneer of veterinary medicine.
  • Jan 1, 1249


    Roger Bacon writes about convex lens spectacles for treating long-sightedness.
  • Scurvy

    James Lind discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy.
  • Alternative Medicine

    Samuel Hahnemann rages against the prevalent practice of bloodletting as a universal cure and founds homeopathy.
  • Smallpox Vaccine

    Edward Jenner develops a smallpox vaccination method.
  • Anastesia

    Humphry Davy announces the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide.
  • First Vaccine for Diphtheria

    Made by Behring
  • First Successful Vaccine for Tuberculosis

    Used in France, and not used in other countries until after WWII.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine (available in 1955).
  • First Full Face Transplant Carried out in Spain