Industrial Revolution

  • James Watt

    James Watt
    A Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who built off of Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1776, which was major in the changes stemming from the Industrial Revolution in both Great Britain and the rest of the world.
  • Mutual-Aid Societies

    Mutual-Aid Societies
    Organizations providing benefits or help to those involved in times of death, sickness, disability, old age, or unemployment. The term "mutual aid" was popularized by Peter Kropotkin in his essay collection Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, arguing that cooperation, was the driving mechanism behind evolution rather than competition. It impacted society during the industrial revolution, helping to get families back on their feet and help those in need, providing society a form of unity.
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    An English naturalist, geologist and biologist, who is best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. Darwin's proposition that all species of life have descended from common ancestors is widely accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. Darwin published this theory of evolution with multiple pieces of evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species.
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    A German philosopher, critic of political economy, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, and socialist revolutionary. Marx's critical theories of society, economics, and politics, are collectively known as Marxism, holding that human societies result from social class conflict. His best-known works are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1883).
  • Socialism

    A political, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems including social ownership, social control, socialization, and regulation. The socialist political movement originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism.
  • Thomas Edision

    Thomas Edision
    An American inventor and businessman, he developed many devices in a variety of scenarios. These inventions, including the phonograph, motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. Edison was one of the firsts to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory
  • Communism

    Ideology with the goal to establish a communist society based on \ common ownership of productions and removal of social classes, money, and the state. When the Industrial Revolution had socialists blaming capitalism and democracy for the factory workers' (workings under dangerous conditions) hardships, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels popularized communism in their pamphlet, the Communist Manifesto, impacting peoples' views on business growing in the Industrial Revolution.
  • Utilitarianism

    A group of theories that support actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all those involved. Utilitarianism's specific ideas emerged in the 18th century, and it is usually credited to Jeremy Bentham, even though earlier writers were strikingly similar in concept. When used in a sociopolitical construct, it aims for the betterment of society as a whole. This philosophy in combination with technological advancements like the assembly line provided affordable home improvements.
  • Social Darwinism

    Social Darwinism
    Theories and societal practices that apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology, economics and politics. Social Darwinism supports that the strong find their wealth and power to increase while the weak see their wealth and power decrease. "Darwinism" was coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in his review of On the Origin of Species, with it being used to describe a range of evolution topics by the 1870s. One of its negative impacts was increased racism.
  • Automobile

    A wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the automobile when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Automobiles became widely available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars available to the public was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Automobiles were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts.
  • Airplane

    A fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller, or rocket engine. The Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, known as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, when he set forth the concept of the modern airplane. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal also studied heavier-than-air flight.
  • Assembly Line

    Assembly Line
    A manufacturing process where parts are added as the semi-finished item moves from workstation to workstation where assemblers add parts in sequence until the final product is complete. A finished product can be madefaster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly. Assembly lines, which became popular during the industrial revolution with Henry Ford's, are common for assembling complex items like automobiles, home appliances, and electronic goods.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    A machine that quickly and efficiently separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. There was also an increase of field slaves in the south as a result of the faster separation. This mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, patented in 1794. Whitney's gin used a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams.
  • Interchangeable Parts

    Interchangeable Parts
    Components that are essentially identical. They are made in a specific way to ensure that they are close enough that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One of these parts can freely replace another without alterations. This allows easy production and easier repair of devices while minimizing the time and skill required of the assemblers. This was crucial to the introduction of the assembly line at the beginning of the 20th century.
  • Alfred Nobel

    Alfred Nobel
    A Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist. He is best known for having his fortune used to establish the Nobel Prize, also making several important contributions to science, holding 355 patents in his lifetime. Nobel's most famous invention was dynamite, a safer and easier way to harness the explosive power of nitroglycerin. It was patented in 1867 and was soon used worldwide for mining and infrastructure development.