Industrial Revolution

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  • Newcomen engine

    Newcomen engine
    In 1712 Thomas Newcomen built an atmospheric engine while trying to pump water from Cornish tin mines. The engine worked by filling with steam a cylinder which contained a piston, then spraying in cold water so that the steam condensed, creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure pushed the piston down, providing power, which could be used to operate machinery. Such engines were used for pumping out mines, or pumping water back to above a waterwheel.
  • Boulton & Watt

    Boulton & Watt
    In 1781 James Watt of Birmingham marketed his rotary-motion steam engine. The earlier steam engine's vertical movement was ideal for operating water pumps but the new engine could be adapted to drive all sorts of machinery, Richard Arkwright was to later pioneer its use in his cotton mills.
  • fitch steamboat

    fitch steamboat
    The era of the steamboat began in America in 1787 when John Fitch (1743-1798) made the first successful trial of a forty-five-foot steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention. Fitch later built a larger vessel that carried passengers and freight between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey.

    On December 20, 1790, water-powered machinery for spinning and carding cotton was set in motion in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Based on the designs of English inventor Richard Arkwright, a mill was built by Samuel Slater on the Blackstone River. The Slater mill was the first American factory to successfully produce cotton yarn with water-powered machines. Slater was a recent English immigrant who apprenticed Arkwright's partner, Jebediah Strutt. Samuel Slater had evaded British law against emigrat

    Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in the mass production of cotton. Whitney was born in Westboro, Massachusetts on December 8, 1765 and died on January 8, 1825. He graduated from Yale College in 1792. By April 1793, Whitney had designed and constructed the cotton gin, a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber.Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States
  • Steamboat

    in 1787 John Fitch made the first successful trial model, it wasn't until 1807 that Robert Fulton invented the Clermont, the first steamboat to successfully navigate 150 miles up the Hudson River.. After extensive rebuilding, the boat began to provide regular passenger service on the Hudson. The Clermont was not the first steamboat to be built, but it was the first to become a practical, financial, and commercially successful steamboat.
  • Samuel Soemmering Telegraph

    Samuel Soemmering Telegraph
    In 1809, a crude telegraph was invented in Bavaria by Samuel Soemmering. He used 35 wires with gold electrodes in water and at the receiving end 2000 feet the message was read by the amount of gas caused by electrolysis
  • "New Orleans" Steam boat

    "New Orleans" Steam boat
    In 1811, the "New Orleans" was built at Pittsburgh, designed by Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston. The New Orleans had a passenger and freight route on the lower Mississippi River.
  • Iron Plow (Interchangable Parts)

    Iron Plow (Interchangable Parts)
    Another plow inventor was the Jethro Wood, a blacksmith from Scipio, New York, who received two patents, one in 1814 and the other in 1819. His plow was cast iron, made in three parts, so that a broken part could be replaced without purchasing a new plow.

    Successful power looms were in operation in England by the early 1800s, but those made in America were inadequate. Boston import merchant, Francis Cabot Lowell realized that for the United States to develop a practical power loom, it would have to borrow British technology.During a visit to Great Britain in 1811, Francis Cabot Lowell Looked At The Textile Industry , Brought It Back To The U.s & Made A Power loom.
  • Electromagnetic telegraph

    Electromagnetic telegraph
    In 1830, an American, Joseph Henry (1797-1878), demonstrated the potential of William Sturgeon's electromagnet for long distance communication by sending an electronic current over one mile of wire to activate an electromagnet which caused a bell to strike.
  • the Sewing Machine

    the Sewing Machine
    the sewing machine, was the work of several men. French tailor Barthelemy Thimmonier (1793–1859) invented a machine in 1830 which used a hooked needle to make chain stitches.

    John Deere invented the steel plow in 1837 when the Middle-West was being settled. The soil was different than that of the East and wood plows kept breaking.It was used for farming to break up tough soil without soil getting stuck to it. He invented it in Grand Detour, Illinois where he had settled.Wood plows couldn't plow the rich soil of the Middle-West without breaking.

    Samuel F. B. Morse (1791–1872) is generally credited with making the first telegraph in 1837,Morse patented a working telegraph machine in 1837, with help from his business partners Leonard Gale and Alfred Vail. Morse used a dots-and-spaces code for the letters of the alphabet and the numbers
  • Single cylinder horizontal engine

    Single cylinder horizontal engine
    In 1843 James Joule had measured and shown that 838 ft lbs of work was needed to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree F, and from this, it was deduced that heat and mechanical energy are mutually convertible. Watt measured the heat entering and leaving an engine and showed the heat loss was equivalent to work the engine was doing. As knowledge of thermodynamics increased, engines were improved by raising the temperature and operating pressure
  • Sulky Plow

    Sulky Plow
    The sulky plow, allowed the plowman to ride rather than walk. Such plows were in use as early as 1844, perhaps earlier. The next step forward was to replace animals that pulled the plows with traction engines.
  • Spinning Jenny

    Spinning Jenny
    The spinning jenny was an eighteenth century modification of the familiar spinning wheel. One day in the 1750s, English carpenter James Hargreaves (1720–1778) inadvertently knocked over his spinning wheel in his Lancashire, England, home and was startled to see it, on its side, still spinning. He instantly envisioned a series of spinning wheels similarly aligned; such a device, he realized, could approximate the rhythm of human fingers.
  • Telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell Invented the Telegraph ,The telegraph and telephone are both wire-based electrical systems, and Alexander Graham Bell's success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph.
  • Tractors

    By 1921, farm tractors were pulling more plows, and doing the work better. Fifty horsepower engines could pull sixteen plows, and harrows, and a grain drill, performing the three operations of plowing, harrowing, and planting at the same time and covering fifty acres or more in a day
  • Telegraph-Rotary Dial

    Telegraph-Rotary Dial
    The rotary dial is a device mounted on or in a telephone or switchboard that is designed to send electrical pulses, known as pulse dialing, corresponding to the number dialed. The early form of the rotary dial used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes
  • Modern Cotton Gin

    Modern Cotton Gin
    In modern cotton production, cotton arrives at cotton gins either in trailers or in compressed "modules", If the cotton is shipped in modules, the module feeder breaks the modules apart using spiked rollers and extracts foreign material from the cotton. The module feeder's loose cotton is then sucked into the same starting point as the trailer cotton.The cotton then enters a dryer, which removes excess moisture.
  • Telegraph-iPhone

    A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. [ Telegraph ]