Forging the National Economy

  • Turnpikes

    In the 1890s, Lancaster Turnpike in Pennsylvania was completed and it enforced a toll with large pikes, hence turnpike.
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    Forging the National Economy

  • U.S. Textile Factory

    U.S. Textile Factory
    In 1791, Samuel Slater, with the aid of a blacksmith and carpenter, created the first efficient American machinery for spinning threads of cotton.
  • Excise Tax

    Excise Tax
    In 1791, Alexander Hamilton secured an excise tax on domestic items. The most prominent of these items was whiskey.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    On this date in 1791, the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to the Constitution) was ratified by the necessary number of states. The Bill of Rights safeguards some of the most important American principles and rights.
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    White House Construction

    Timespan of the construction of the White House.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    In 1793, Eli Whitney built a machine called the cotton gin. He created this machine to separate the seed from the cotton fibers.He was told that the invention such as his would cure southern poverty, and it did, but it also strengthened the grip of slavery on the South.
  • Musket developments

    Musket developments
    After developing the cotton gin, Whitney turned to manufacturing muskets for the U.S. Army. In doing so, he invented interchangeable parts so that when a part broke, another musket's part would fit in its place.
  • Efficient Shipping

    Efficient Shipping
    On this date in 1803, a firm in Rhode Island sent a shipment of yarn to a point sixty miles away and told the purchaser it would arrive in " the course of winter." Efficeient carriers were imperative in this time to gain profit and customers.
  • The First Steamboat

    The First Steamboat
    Rober Fulton, as a painter-engineer, installed a steam engine in a vessel known to the public as "Fulton's Folly" and sailed the ship from New York City o Albany in 1807.
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    The War of 1812

    The War of 1812 was considered to be America's second war for independence from Great Britain. It was caused by British attempts to smother Americans in debt and death.
  • The Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent
    The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812. This war was a great impact on the United States, but is considered a minor conflict against Britain.
  • The Start of the Erie Canal

    The Start of the Erie Canal
    In 1817, New Yorkers that had been "cut off from federal aid by states' righters," led by Governor DeWitt Clinton, began the construction of the Erie canal. This large project would later scoffingly be called "Clinton's Big Ditch" and/or "the Governor's Gutter."
  • Fur-Trappers

    By this time, American fur-trappers set their traplines across the boundless Rockies. The empire involved in this was based on the rendezvous, or meeting system.
  • Child Workers

    Child Workers
    In the year 1820, a large amount of factory workers were children that were under the age of ten. Many of these children were ill-treated, and even whipped in special "whipping rooms."
  • Boston's Sewer System

    Boston's Sewer System
    In 1823, Boston pioneered a sewer system in place of the common custom of throwing sewage from a chamber pot out a window or door.
  • Completion of the Erie Canal

    Completion of the Erie Canal
    Upon completion, the Erie Canal ribboned 363 miles, connecting all of the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. The canal also eventually led to the migration of New Yorkers and other northeners alike to farmland south of the Great Lakes.
  • U.S. Railroad

    U.S. Railroad
    The railroad has been proved to be the most significant contribution to the development of the economy. Railroads were cheaper than canals to construct, and were considered to be able to go almost anywhere.
  • Andrew Jackson's First Inauguration

    Andrew Jackson's First Inauguration
    Andrew Jackson was inaugurated into the White House for the first time on March 4, 1829. He arrived at the inauguration in a horse-drawn carriage.
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    Immigration of the Irish

    Nearly two million Irish arrived in America within this timespan.
  • McCormick's Reaper

    McCormick's Reaper
    In the 1830s Cyrus McCormick contributed to a contraption known as the mower-reaper.This horse-drawn machine could have a single man do the work of five men. It made capitalists out of plowmen.
  • Observing the Native Americans

    Observing the Native Americans
    In 1832, Ceorge Catlin observed Sioux Indians butcher buffalo mercilessly in order for them to trade the tounges for whiskey. He was horrified by this sight and proposed the idea of national parks. This proposal later led to the creation of the world's first national park system and Yellowstone Park.
  • New York Railroads

    New York Railroads
    In 1833 the New York legislature, in order to preserve their investment of the Erie Canal, prohibited the railroads to carry freight.
  • "Awful Disclosures"

    "Awful Disclosures"
    In 1836, Maria Monk wrote "Awful Disclosures" which sold over 300,000 copies. This was one of many books written by "Nativists" that incouraged literature of exposure.
  • The Steel Plow

    The Steel Plow
    In 1837, John Deere of Illinois produced a steel plow that broke through the stubborn soil of the area, and was light enough to be pulled by horses instead of oxen like the wooden plow.
  • End of Jackson's Second Term

    End of Jackson's Second Term
    Eight years after Jackson's first inauguration, he departs Washington in a railway car, instead of the horse-drawn carriage he arrived in.
  • Severe Depression

    Severe Depression
    This depression spread unemployment at a grievous rate. It also destroyed trade unionists gains in supporters.
  • Patent Craze

    Patent Craze
    In 1838, the clerk at the Patent Office resigned, complaining that all worthwhile inventions had already been thought up. Each invention seemed to spark another idea in an inventor's mind.
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt

    Commonwealth v. Hunt
    Commonwealth v. Hunt was the Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that led to the strengthening of the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions.
  • New York Water Pipes

    New York Water Pipes
    In 1842, New York traded wells and cisterns for piped-in water.this unknowing decreased the breeding areas for disease-carrying mosquitoes.
  • Invention of the Telegraph

    Invention of the Telegraph
    In 1844, Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph that tightened the strength of the complex business world. The telegraph was meant to send messages to distant places. Morse strung a wire from Washington to Baltimore, and then tapped out the now historic message, "What hath God wrought?"
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

    Ralph Waldo Emerson
    In 1844, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote the historic quote, "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond."
  • Potato Famine Begins

    Potato Famine Begins
    At the start of the famine, the Irish were under a heavy burden put upon them by the British. The famine was caused by a rot on the Irish potato crop called blight. Ireland had become so dependent on the crop that many of the Irish died of disease and hunger.
  • Sewing Machine

    Sewing Machine
    The sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe and perfected by Isaac Singer. This machine gave a very strong boost to northern industrialization and became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry. It drove many seamstresses to factories across the north.
  • End of Potato Famine

    End of Potato Famine
    By the end of the famine about two million Irsih died, and thousands of others flocked to America in an attempt to escape the famine.
  • Know-Nothing Party

    Know-Nothing Party
    Also known as the American party, the Know-Nothing Party was a nativist political party that rose into existance in response to the large amount of immigrants.
  • Female Employment

    Female Employment
    By 1850, 10% of white women were working outside of their homes, and about 20% of all women were employed before their marriage.
  • London World's Fair

    London World's Fair
    London World's Fair was a showcase of American inventors' creations. The displays included the telegraph and the McCormick reaper.
  • First Transatlantic Cable

    First Transatlantic Cable
    Cyrus Field, know as " the greatest wire-puller in history," coordinated an Anglo-American-Canadian joint endeavor to stretch a cable under the North Atlantic Ocean waters from Newfoundland to Ireland. Even though the public rejoiced, after three weeks the cable died, and a newer, heaftier cable was laid in its place, permanently connecting the American and European continents.
  • The Pony Express

    The Pony Express
    Th Pony Express' initial intent was to carry mail swifty across the two thousand miles from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California. The unarmed riders traveled through winter and summer, day and night, traveling to each station that were approximately ten miles apart to saddle a new 'pony.' By doing this they were able to make the trip in only ten days. In the end, the Pony Express was ended because one missed trip caused them to close from money loss.
  • Steamboats Everywhere

    Steamboats Everywhere
    By 1820 there were about sixty steamboats on the Mississippi River, and in 1860 about one thousand resided on the river, including many river 'palaces.'