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Gunpowder Plot/English Civil War/Enlightenment

  • The gunpowder plot

    The gunpowder plot
    The Gunpowder Plot was when Guy Fawks and other men were planning on bombing the king. They had a whole plan but Guy Fawks ended up getting caught while placing the bombs and it failed. He then got tortured and killed.
  • The celebration

    The celebration
    In celebration of his survival, King James ordered that the people of England should have a great bonfire on the night on 5th November.
    The event is still commemorated annually in England on 5th November by fireworks and burning ‘guys’ (effigies) on bonfires.
  • 30 year war

    30 year war
    Violence breaks out between Catholic nations and Protestant ones. The Catholics were mainly represented by the Holy Roman Empire. The war spread across Europe, except for Britain. The war ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia, which split the Holy Roman Empire in two. They lost much of their German territory.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    Parliament formed a committee of grievances and prepared a Petition of Right which was presented to the King. The Petition was designed to protect subjects from any further taxation unauthorised by Parliament. Charles signed the document reluctantly.
  • The beheading of King Charles I

    The beheading of King Charles I
    After the Round heads claimed their victory upon the cavaliers they decided to imprison and behead king Charles I publicly. they did this as a sign to people of what happens to traitors or essentially what can happen if you don't work with parliament. back then to behead someone you would have a very skilled swordsman or axemen, who had a sharp axe/sword. because if you didn't well lets just say that would be a very painful death.
  • Thomas Hobbes Publishes "Leviathan"

    Thomas Hobbes Publishes "Leviathan"
    The idea of a social contract was documented in its earliest stage in Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan." He stated that a person with absolute authority should rule a nation, and he should be responsible for ensuring the protection and prospering of his people. He came up with his ideas out of fear of political turmoil engulfing England at the time.
  • Versailles

    The establishment of the Court and the seat of power in Versailles had been underway since 1677, when the works on the site were sped up and the king doubled up state services between Paris and Versailles. On 6 May 1682, Versailles became the headquarters of the government. Athough Paris never ceased to be the official capital, the decision made Versailles the de facto centre of the kingdom until 1789.
  • Spinning Jenny is invented

    Spinning Jenny is invented
    The spinning Jenny is invented by a Weaver named James Hargreaves in 1764. Hargreaves had the ideas when one day his daughter Jenny, accidentally knocked over the family spinning wheel. The spinal continue to revolve and he gave him the idea that a whole line of spindles would be worked off one wheel. The spinning Jenny used eight spindles one to which the thread was spun, so by turning a single wheel, the operator could now spin eight rides at once.
  • Adam Smith Publishes "The Wealth of Nations.”

    Adam Smith Publishes "The Wealth of Nations.”
    Adam Smith was one of the first men to advocate free market capitalism. He outlined this in his book, "The Wealth of Nations." This said that if markets were kept free from government regulation, the people participating in them would be richer, and to a further extent the government. He invented the term Laissez-faire.
  • Louis XVI summons the Estates General

    Louis XVI summons the Estates General
    The political and financial situation in France had grown rather bleak, forcing Louis XVI to summon the Estates General. The opening of the Estates General, on 5 May 1789 in Versailles, also marked the start of the French Revolution. Louis XI convened the Estates-General only once.
  • Civil Constitution of the French Clergy

    Civil Constitution of the French Clergy
    It was a law passed during the French Revolution, that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France to the French government. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy made bishops and priests elected. It embittered relations between the French church and the state.
  • French Republic proclaimed

    French Republic proclaimed
    In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire on 18 May 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. It abolished the monarchy and declared a republic.
  • Committee of Public Safety founded

    Committee of Public Safety founded
    The Committee of Public Safety was created by the National Convention with the intent to defend the nation against foreign and domestic enemies, as well as to oversee the new functions of the executive government. Members were elected and served for a period of one month. It prepared France to deal with foreign invasions by establishing new armies for the country.
  • Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin
    In 1794, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which made the separation of cotton seeds much faster. The South increased its cotton supply and sent raw cotton north to be used in the manufacturazation of cloth. Francis C. Lowell increased the efficiency in the manufacture of cloth by bringing spinning and weaving processes together into one factory. This led to the development of the textile industry throughout New England.
  • Robespierre guillotined

    Robespierre guillotined
    Robespierre was almost unanimously elected president of the National Convention.The next evening, July 28, Robespierre and 21 others were guillotined without a trial in the Place de la Revolution. During the next few days, another 82 Robespierre followers were executed.
  • Eli Whitney's 2nd Great Invention.

    Eli Whitney's 2nd Great Invention.
    Eli Whitney also came up with the idea to use interchangeable parts to build muskets in 1798. If the standard parts were made by machine, then they could be assembled at the end much faster than before. This became an important part of American industry.

    The two legislative assemblies were moved to the Château de Saint Cloud under the pretext that they needed protection from a potential plot. Bonaparte was charged with the protection of the “deputes”. He gave a confused speech in front of the assemblies; this caused trouble in the ranks, and Bonaparte was heckled by the men present. Order was restored thanks to the intervention of General Murat and his troops..
  • Electric battery

    Electric battery
    A battery is a device that converts chemical energy contained within its active materials directly into electric energy by means of an electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction. This type of reaction involves the transfer of electrons from one material to another via an electric circuit.

    The creation of a secular cult, unpopular and poorly supported by the population, had severely disrupted French society and succeeded only in setting French citizens against each other. Concerned for civic peace, Bonaparte entered into discussion with the Holy See, resulting in the signature of the Concordat on 15 July 1801. Catholicism was recognised as the “religion of the French majority” and places of worship were reopened.

    Napoleon was crowned Emperor of the French. Over 12,000 people were present at the ceremony which lasted for more than four hours in the freezing Cathedral of Notre-Dame. The Pope also made a special trip from Rome for the ceremony. However, in placing the crown upon his head himself and crowning his own wife Josephine, Napoleon succeeded in reducing the Pope to a simple blessing of the ceremony, thus reaffirming his power in face of the Catholic Church.
  • Camera

    The first partially successful photograph of a camera image was made in approximately 1816 by Nicéphore Niépce, using a very small camera of his own making and a piece of paper coated with silver chloride, which darkened where it was exposed to light.
  • William Wilberforce

    William Wilberforce
    He was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career in 1780, eventually becoming an independent Member of Parliament for Yorkshire.
  • Royal assent

    Royal assent
    Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature, either directly or through an official acting on the monarch's behalf. In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in others that is a separate step.
  • Opium Wars

    Opium Wars
    The Opium Wars were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's sovereignty. The disputes included the First Opium War and the Second Opium War
  • She marries Prince Albert

    She marries Prince Albert
    Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, her first cousin. As queen, she was the one to propose. During their 21 years of marriage (until Albert died of typhoid in 1861) the couple had nine children.
  • First postage stamp

    First postage stamp
    The Penny Black, the world’s first postage stamp sold for one penny, is released in Britain, featuring a profile portrait of Queen Victoria. More than 70 millions letters are sent within the next year, a number tripled in two years. It’s soon copied in other countries, and the stamp is used for 40 years.
  • Elias Howe's Sewing Machine

    Elias Howe's Sewing Machine
    In 1846, Elias Howe created the sewing machine which revolutionized the making of clothing. All of a sudden, clothing began to be made in factories as opposed to at home. This allowed for mass production of clothing.
  • Samuel F. B. Morse's Telegraph

    Samuel F. B. Morse's Telegraph
    With the increased size of the United States, better communication networks became even more important than before. In 1844, Samuel F. B. Morse created the telegraph and by 1860, this network streched from the eastern coast to the Mississippi.
  • Telegraph

    A telegraph is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e., for telegraphy. The word telegraph alone now generally refers to an electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy is transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes.
  • Treaty of kanagawa

    Treaty of kanagawa
    A treaty allowing the opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade and permitting the establishment of a U.S. consulate in Japan.
  • Henry Bessemer develops a new process for manufacturing steel

    Henry Bessemer develops a new process for manufacturing steel
    Historically, steel proved very costly to produce and could only be used for the manufacture of small, valuable items, such as knives, swords and armour. In 1856, Henry Bessemer discovered a method of converting iron into steel, which was both stronger and lighter. This production technique became known as the Bessemer Converter. The process revolutionised the construction industries, enabling Britain to build large-scale structures such as bridges, trains and boats.
  • Sepoy Mutiny/The Indian Rebellion

    Sepoy Mutiny/The Indian Rebellion
    The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a rebellion in India against the rule of the British East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to July 1859.
  • Type Writer

    Type Writer
    The first practical typewriter was completed in September, 1867, although the patent was not issued until June, 1868. The man who was responsible for this invention was Christopher Latham Sholes of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The first commercial model was manufactured in 1873 and was mounted on a sewing machine stand.
  • Railroads Across America 2

    Railroads Across America 2
    Railroads further opened the west and connected raw materials to factories and markets. A transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah. The last rail road spike that was laid here was called the Golden Spike.
  • Nicholas II

    Nicholas II
    known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Congress Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.
  • Berlin Confrence

    Berlin Confrence
    Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
  • Boar war

    Boar war
    The discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer republics in the 1880s further intensified the rivalry, particularly as British subjects flooded into the Boer territories in search of wealth.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russo-Japanese War
    The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
  • First Battle of the Marne begins

    First Battle of the Marne begins
    The Germans had advanced to within 30 miles of Paris, but over the next two days, the French are reinforced by 6,000 infantrymen who are transported to the front by hundreds of taxis. The Germans dig in north of the Aisne River, and the trench warfare that is to typify the Western Front for the next four years begins
  • The British ocean liner Lusitania is torpedoed

    The British ocean liner Lusitania is torpedoed
    It’s torpedoed by a German U-boat off the southern coast of Ireland. It sinks in just 18 minutes, and nearly 1,200 people are killed, including 128 U.S. citizens. The ship had been carrying over 170 tons of rifle ammunition and artillery shells, and Germany felt fully justified in treating the Lusitania as a legitimate target in a declared war zone.
  • The First Battle of the Somme begins

    The First Battle of the Somme begins
    The British offensive is intended to draw German attention from Verdun, and in that regard only could it be considered a success. The nearly 20,000 killed in action on July 1 marks the single bloodiest day in the history of the British army. By the time the Somme campaign ground to a halt some four and a half months later, the combined casualties of both sides topped 1,000,000.
  • The Russian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution
    a period of political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire which began during the First World War. This period saw Russia abolish its monarchy and adopt a socialist form of government following two successive revolutions and a bloody civil war.
  • Communist Russia Under Lenin and Stalin

    Communist Russia Under Lenin and Stalin
    Stalin was one of the Bolsheviks' chief operatives in the Caucasus and grew close to leader Vladimir Lenin, who saw him as a tough character, and a loyal follower capable of getting things done behind the scenes.
  • A British offensive at Cambrai, France, marks the first large-scale use of tanks in combat

    A British offensive at Cambrai, France, marks the first large-scale use of tanks in combat
    Attacking with complete surprise, the British tanks ripped through German defenses in depth and took some 7,500 prisoners at low cost in casualties. Bad weather intervened, however, and adequate infantry reinforcements were not available to capitalize on the breakthrough. Within two weeks the British had been driven back almost to their original positions.
  • The Russian Imperial Romanov family

    The Russian Imperial Romanov family
    They all were shot and bayoneted to death by Bolshevik revolutionaries under Yakov Yurovsky on the orders of the Ural Regional Soviet in Yekaterinburg
  • Catherine the Great

    Catherine the Great
    The Russian Empire grew larger and stronger. The period of Catherine’s rule, 1762 to 1796, is often called the Golden Age of the Russian Empire.
  • Difference between Lenin and Stalin

    Difference between Lenin and Stalin
    Lenin was the revered architect and elder statesman of the Bolshevik revolution, while Stalin was an ambitious rising party leader. Theirs was a clash not only of political vision and statecraft, but of personal insults and grudges.