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The Industrial Revolution (14523)

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  • The Seed Drill

    The Seed Drill
    Jethro Tull was a scientific farmer who realized that the traditional way of planting seeds, scattering theem across the gound, was wasteful. He invented the seed drill in 1701 and it allowed farmers to plant seeds in neat rows and increased productivity.
  • The Flying Shuttle

    The Flying Shuttle
    The flying shuttle was invented by John Kay in 1733. It was a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarm attached that sped bacl and forth, doubling the work and weaver could do in a day.
  • The Spinning Jenny

    The Spinning Jenny
    James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel, the spinning jenny, which he named after his daughter. It allowed one spinner to work up to eight threads at a time.
  • Richard Arkwright

    Richard Arkwright
    In 1769, he invented the water frame, which used water power from streams to power looms. He was a textile factory owner.
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism is the belief in an economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a profit. Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, which is the main thought of capitalism, economic liberty guarantees economic progress.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Adam Smith was a professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. In 1776 he wrote the book The Wealth of Nations. He is accredited with the creation of capitalism.
  • The Spinning Mule

    The Spinning Mule
    Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule by combining features of the spinning jenny and the water frame. The spinning mule made thread stronger, finer, and more consistent.
  • Utilitarianism

    Jeremy Bentham introduced the idea of utilitarianism. He believed people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utiliy, government should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. John Stuart Mill led the movement in the 1800s.
  • The Cotton Gin

    The Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to speed the task of cleaning and removing seeds from raw cotton.
  • William Cockerill

    William Cockerill
    William Cockerill was a carpenter who traveled to Belgium, taking with him secret plans for building spinning machinery. Eventually, his son built an enormous industrial enterprise in Belgium.
  • Socialism

    French reformers like Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon created socialism to offset the negative effects of industrialization. Socialism is the belief that factors of production should be owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
  • The Steamboat

    The Steamboat
    Robert Fulton, an American inventor, ordered a steam engine from Boulton and Watt and created the steamboat to make trips up and down river faster and easier. His first steamboat was the Clermont.
  • Francis Cabot Lowell

    Francis Cabot Lowell
    Francis Cabot Lowell and four other investors revolutionized the American textile industry by making every stage in the manufacture of cloth mechanized. Lowell, Massachusetts was named after him.
  • Abolition of Slavery

    Abolition of Slavery
    The fight to end slavery in the British empire was fought strongly by William Wilberforce. Parliament passed a bill to end the slave trade in the British West Indies in 1807. Britain finally abolished slavery in its empire in 1833.
  • Alexis de Tocquevile

    Alexis de Tocquevile
    A French writer who visited Manchester and wrote about what he saw. He believed that wealthy people or the government must take action to improve people's lives.
  • Reforming the Workday

    Reforming the Workday
    In 1847, Parliament passed a bill which helped working women and their children by limiting the workday to 10 hours for women and children in factories. It was called The Ten Hours Act.
  • Communism

    Karl Marx, and his friend Friedrich Engles, wrote The Communist Manifesto, which outlined many of the key beliefs of communism. Communism is a complete form of socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people.
  • Friedrich Engels

    Friedrich Engels
    Friedrich Engels was the son of a German textile mill owner, he worked closely with Karl Marx to publish the Communist Manifesto in 1848. He was Marx's right hand man.
  • The United States

    The United States
    The United States remained an agricultural nation until the end of the Civil War, in 1865. During the last third of the 1800s, however, the country experienced a technological boom. The wealth of natural resources helped to strengthen this Industrial Revolution.
  • Women for Change

    Women for Change
    Women activists throughout the world joined forces in 1888 to found the International Council for Women. There were delegates and observers from 27 countries at the 1899 meeting. The Industrial Revolution brought work for women, but not equality.