The Industrial Revolution began in Britain. The Spinning Jenny was created, allowing one person to spin more than one thread at a time. The Jenny held 8 spoons at a time.As technology advanced more spoons could be attached.
The Water Frame
Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, a spinning machine, that was powered by running water. Manufacturers built machines on riverbanks.
British Workers were producing 24 times as much thread as they had in 1765
Ideas / Samuel Slater
A young aprentice working at Awkwrights factories immigrated to U.S. Samuel Slater knew Awkwrights machines would make him a fortune. Samuel then joined forces with Moses Brown, a wealthy merchant. Brown had rented a textile mill in Pautucket, Rhode Island. Slater then constructed the spinning machine out of memory of Awkwrights machines.
Arkwright built the first steam powered textile plant. Factories no longer had to be built by river banks.
Growth of Cities
New York was the most populated city with 33,000 people. Compared to the Aztecs they were hardly more than a town. In the 1800's U.S cities grew larger industrial revolution spurred URBANIZATION – GROWTH OF CITIES DUE TO MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE FROM RURAL AREAS TO CITIES.As capitalists built more factories agricultural workers were attracted to new types of work available in cities.Cities along the east coast became crowded, immigrants headed west.
A Transportation Revolution
Improvements in transportation increased the growth of American industry.
Improved transportation also allowed factory owners to ship their goods to distant markets
In 1807, Robert Fulton, an american inventor, used a steam engine to power a boat.
His Clermont was the first practical steamboat. It was 133 feet long and had wooden side paddles that pulled it through the water.
They were not suited to travel through the ocean.
Industrialization began in the Northeast, but began to grow significantly after the was of 1812. Francis Cabot Lowell and an associate built an improved version of the English machines. Lowel then opened a mill in Waltham, Massachusetts, with other capitalists. Spinning and weaving were put into one factory.
Railroads did the most to tie together raw materials, manufacturers, and markets.
Steamboats had to follow river paths, and during winter froze, but railroads could be built everywhere.
In 1812 , the Baltimore and Ohio, the first railroad was built.
Death/ growth of buisness
Charles DickensLowell died in 1817. His partner decided to expand the buisness. He built a new town, library, and hospital for the workers. They named the town Lowell. The Lowell girls were young women and children that lived in boarding houses, had strict rules, and mostly went to the library or went to go get lectures. Women got great education. Charles Dickens was amazed and wrote the article of the "Mill Workers". ^^^
The cars on the railroads were pulled along the track by horses.
In 1830, Peter Cooper built the first american made steam locomotive. By 1840, about 3,000 miles of railway tracks had been built in the U.S.
Americans experimented new methods. 1790's American inventor, Eli Whitner devised a system of interchangable parts, used soon for many products, for more efficient manufacturing. Prices of goods dropped more people bought, and the U.S industry is going better.
New Wave Of Immigrants
The population grew rapidly in the 1840's. Millions of immigrants came to the U.S, mostly from Western Europe. Some came because they heard about cheap land for sale, others believed their skills would be useful, and many didn't have a choice because they weren't able to survive at home.
Growth of cities (continued)
1840 Pennsylvania had about 23,000 people.Ten years later the population had doubled.Louisville,Kentucky was growing too.German and Irish immigrants increased the cities population to more than 43,000 by 1850 making Louisville larger than Washington D.C.
Growth of Northern Industry
Communications were being revolutionized.
The Telegraph, a device that used electrical signals to send messages quickly over long distance was create by Samuel FB Morse.
1844 Morse tested his system, and it worked,
soon everyone in America was using it.
Thousands of miles of wires were strung across the nation.
Communication traveled for hours instead of weeks.
The workers were beggining to complain about the work. They were demanding shorter work days, "Eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep and eight hours for God and the brethen".
The Great Hunger
In Ireland for most of the people the main food was the potato. But a fungus destroyed the potato crop, leading to famine, or widespread starvation. The years when this happened were called The Great Hunger. More than a million people died of starvation, which led to the immigration to the U.S. About a million Irish immigrants came to the U.S. Irish men usually found the lowliest job of laying railroad tracks or working at a construction, while women worked as household workers. lasted until1852
Advances in agriculture and manufacturing
The mechanical reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick made it easier for farmers to settle the prairies of the midwest cut stalks of wheat many times faster than a human worker could Enabled farmers to cultivate more land and harvest crops faster.1846 Elias Howe created a machine that could sew seams in fabric.A few years later Isaac Singer improved the design.
Advances in manufacturing
Clothes became even less expensive and modest means began to dress like wealthy Americans.
1860 factories in new England and the Middle Atlantic states were producing most of the nation manufactured goods.
Americans had over $1 billion invested in buisness, 90% of that was in the North.
not a good sewage systems,
lack of clean drinking water.
Spreading of disease from these problems
Citywide fires. Most structures were made of wood.
Firefighters were poorly trained and equipped.
Insurance companies paid firefighters for saving an insured building.
Firefighter fights often broke out instead of trying to save the building.
Transportation Revolution continued...
In 1850, a new ship, the clipper, was created. It was long and slender, with tall masts. They were magnificent and swift.
The Yankee clippers were the fastest ships.
By the 1850's Great Britain was creating oceangoing steam ships that could carry more cargo.
Germans fled to the U.S when they wouldn't win revolutions against harsh rulers. Germans came from different levels of society. Many moved west. But many also settled in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region.
Reaction Against Immigrants
Americans nativists were beginning to get worried about the growing of foreign populations. They especially opposed the Irish immigrant because of Roman Catholics. Agroup of nativists in New York formed a secret group. The know nothings soon became a political party. In 1856, the Know Nothing candidate for President won 21% of the vote. A bit after the party soon split and everything was resolved.
Mills began to employ kids as young as 7 or 8. These kids got no education. they had unsafe conditions. There were more than a million kids, but only kids from 10 to 15 worked for pay. Working conditions kept on worsening, factories were poorly lighted, little to no fresh air, they were to that "machines perform a task, not protect people." The eight hour work day were far in the future. But conditions gradually became better.