Honors World History Timeline

  • 100

    Egypt Cultural

    5000 B.C Egyptians lived in farming villages as far back as 5000 B.C., perhaps even earlier. Each village had its own rituals, gods, and chieftain. This developed culture
  • 100

    Indus Valley Political

    Archeologists have found evidence of highlands and domesticated sheep dating all the way back to 7000 B.C. They also found evidence people were farming in villages along the Indus River.
  • 101

    Mesopotamia Political

    3000 B.C many city states were established. They functioned like an independent country works today.
  • 101

    Mesopotamia Interactions

    By 3000 B.C., the Sumerians had built a number of cities, each surrounded by fields of barley and wheat. This was an effective spot to settle down in because the crops were right by them.
  • 101

    Mesopotamia Political

    From 3000 to 2000 B.C., the city-states of Sumer were almost constantly at war with one another. This causes the cities to be weak and not able to fight off other people.
  • 101

    Egypt Political

    By 3200 B.C., the villages of Egypt were under the rule of two separate kingdoms, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Eventually the two kingdoms were united. There is conflicting historical evidence over who united Upper and Lower Egypt. Some evidence points to a king called Scorpion. More solid evidence suggests a king named Narmer. This lead to more peace-
  • 101

    Egypt Interactions

    3200-2700 Historians suggest that the pattern for Egypt’s great civilization was set during the period from 3200 to 2700 B.C. This was the start of Egypt.
  • 101

    Greece Interactions

    By 3000 B.C., the Minoans lived on the large Greek island of Crete. This would later contribute to the growing population of Greece.
  • 101

    Greece Interactions

    3000s B.C Climate was the third important environmental influence on Greece civilization. The moderate temperatures supported an outdoor life for many Greek citizens.
  • 101

    Egypt Economic

    3000s B.C the Nile river brings its water to Egypt from distant mountains, plateaus, and in present-day Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Egypt’s settlements arose along the Nile on a narrow strip of land made fertile by the river.
  • 101

    Egypt Interactions

    3000s B.C The Nile provided a reliable system of transportation between Upper and Lower Egypt. The Nile flows north, so northbound boats simply drifted with the current making trade easier.
  • 101

    Egypt Cultural

    3000s- 2000 B.C the early Egyptians were polytheistic, believing in many gods. Egyptians worshiped more than 2,000 gods and goddesses. They built huge temples to honor the major deities. THis glorified Egypt
  • 101

    Egypt Cultural

    3000s-2000s B.C Royal and elite Egyptians’ bodies were preserved by mummification, which involves embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying. Scholars still accept Herodotus’s description of the process of mummification as one of the methods used by Egyptians. This is important because it allows us to know about the past of Egypt.
  • 101

    Egypt Social

    3000s-2000s B.C pyramid. The king, queen, and royal family stood at the top. Below them were the other members of the upper class, which included wealthy landowners, government officials, priests, and army commanders. The next tier of the pyramid was the middle class, which included merchants and artisans. At the base of the pyramid was the lower class, by far the largest class. It consisted of peasant farmers and laborers.
  • 102

    Egypt Political

    The period from 2660 to 2180 B.C.,known as the Old Kingdom, marks a time when Egypt’s civilization patterns became widespread.
  • 102

    Egypt Economic

    2556 B.C The largest of the pyramids is the Great Pyramid at Giza, completed about 2556 B.C. These are said to be man made. These were tombs that held people of higher power. It determined importance of the people.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Political

    2505 B.C. - The cities’ planning and construction was very consistent and in a uniform matter. This suggests that the Indus Valley had a strong central government.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Political

    About 2500 B.C. - While Egyptians were building pyramids, the people in the Indus Valley were laying bricks for the first cities. They built strong leves and earthen walls to keep water out.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Social

    2500 B.C. - The people of the Indus Valley came up with a language. This language has not yet been translated.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Interactions

    2500 B.C. - The first Indian civilization built well-planned cities on the banks of the Indus River. Population grew.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Interactions

    2500 B.C. - Farming is best when it is done by the Indus River. The indus River and Ganges Rivers are one of the most vital parts of the Indus Valley.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Interactions

    2500 B.C. - The Indus and Ganges rivers carry silt in the water. This not only helps with irrigation, but it helps create good agriculture.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Economic

    around 2500 B.C. - One of the most remarkable achievements the people of the Indus Valley had, was their sophisticated city planning. They laid out their cities on a precise grid system.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Economic

    2500 B.C. - The greatest achievement of the Indus Valley was their irrigation system. The systems these people came up with, was very efficient and were the greatest before the 19th century.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Social

    Around 2500 B.C. - Harappa was built. Harappa was a citadel that protected the royal family, as well as serving as a temple.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Interactions

    In 2500 B.C., the Persian Gulf was larger than it is today. Over time the Tigris and Euphrates have joined together and filled in this shallow area.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Political

    2500 B.C.,many Sumerian city-states came under the rule of dynasties. The people were the full time rulers.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Economic

    2500 B.C some slaves were Sumerians who had been sold into slavery as children to pay the debts of their poor parents. Debt slaves could hope to eventually buy their freedom.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Interactions

    By 2500 B.C., new cities were arising all over the Fertile Crescent, in what is now Syria, northern Iraq, and Turkey. This caused cultural diffusion.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Cultural

    2500 B.C Cultural diffusion started by the sumerians with the exchange of products and ideas. This helped spread culture though people in events such as trading.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Economic

    2500 B.C Sumer’s city-states grew prosperous from the surplus food produced on their farms. These surpluses allowed Sumerians to increase long-distance trade, exchanging the extra food and other goods for items they needed.
  • 102

    Greece Social

    2000B.C Mycenaeans settled on Greek mainland. This started the Greek culture.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Cultural

    2350 B.C., a conqueror named Sargon defeated the city-states of Sumer. He created what is known as an empire. He spread akkadian culture along tigris and Euphrates river
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Cultural

    2300 B.C first map was made. The map was made on a clay tablet and was written in cuneiform.
  • 102

    Egypt social

    2180 B.C The power of the pharaohs declined about 2180 B.C., marking the end of the Old Kingdom. This lead to the Middle Kingdom later.
  • 102

    Egpt Economic

    2040–1640 B.C Strong pharaohs regained control during the Middle Kingdom and restored law and order. They improved trade and transportation by digging a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea.
  • 102

    Egypt Interactions

    2040-1640 B.C pharaohs created thousands of new acres of farmland by draining the swamps of Lower Egypt. This allowed land to be cleared up and farming could start.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Social

    2000s B.C Society With civilization came the beginning of what we call social classes. Kings, landholders, and some priests made up the highest level in Sumerian society. Wealthy merchants ranked next. The vast majority of ordinary Sumerian people worked with their hands in fields and workshops. At the lowest level of Sumerian society were the slaves.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Economic

    2000s B.C activities required organization, cooperation, and leadership. It took many people working together, for example, for the Sumerians to construct their large irrigation systems.
  • 102

    Mesopotamia Social

    2000 B.C., nomadic warriors known as Amorites invaded Mesopotamia. They overwhelmed the Sumerians and established babylon.
  • 102

    Egypt Social

    2000s B.C Women in Egypt held many of the same rights as men. For example, a wealthy or middle-class woman could own and trade property.
  • 102

    Egypt Social

    2000s B.C To the Egyptians, kings were gods. The Egyptian god-kings,called pharaohs were thought to be almost as splendid and powerful as the gods of the heavens.
  • 102

    Egypt Political

    2000s B.C during the Egyptian times a government known as theocracy was established. This type of ruling was through religious leaders.
  • 102

    Indus Valley Social

    early 2ooo’s - Because of the mountain ranges, the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayas, the Indian subcontinent is secluded from the rest of the Asian continent.
  • 102

    China Social

    Around 2000 B.C. settlements grew into China’s first cities. with this the populations started to rise.
  • 102

    China Interactions

    2000s B.C Because of China’s relative geographic isolation, early settlers had to supply their own goods rather than trading with outside peoples. This lead to more food
  • 102

    China Cultural

    2000 B.C The earliest evidence of Chinese writing is seen on oracle bones like this one found in the city of Anyang. This is one of the most complicated languages.
  • 102

    China Cultural

    2000s B.C Shang kings consulted the gods through the use of oracle bones, animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions for the gods.
  • 102

    China Interactions

    2000 B.C Natural barriers somewhat isolated ancient China from all other civilizations. To China’s east lay the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. Mountain ranges and deserts dominate about two-thirds of China’s landmass.
  • 102

    China Social

    2000 B.C According to legend, the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, emerged
    . Its leader was an engineer and mathematician named Yu. This brought advantages to the dynasty.
  • 102

    China Interaction

    2000 B.C The Huang He’s floods could be disastrous. Sometimes floods devoured whole villages, earning the river the nickname “China’s Sorrow.”
  • 103

    China Political

    The Shang Dynasty lasted from around 1700 B.C. to 1027B.C. they were the first family of Chinese rulers to leave written records.-
  • 103

    Greece Economic

    1500 B.C., through either trade or war, the Mycenaeans came into contact with the Minoan civilization. From their contact with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans saw the value of seaborne trade. Mycenaean traders soon sailed throughout the eastern Mediterranean, making stops at Aegean islands, coastal towns in Anatolia, and ports in Syria, Egypt, Italy, and Crete.
  • 103

    Greece Cultural

    1500 B.C The Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan writing system to the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan designs. This lead to the cultures fusing.
  • 103

    Mesopotamia Social

    1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi’s most enduring legacy is the code of laws he put together. The Hammurabi code are uniform code of laws that would help to unify the diverse groups within his empire. there were 282 specific laws
  • 104

    Indus Valley Cultural

    1500- 1000 B.C. - Hymns were beginning to be produced. These are believed to be the earliest recorded hymns in history.
  • 104

    Greece Political

    1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against Troy. The name of the war was Trojan war.
  • 104

    Greece Political

    Around 1200 B.C.,sea raiders attacked and burned many Mycenaean cities. Dorian were next in the ruling of Greece. The attack lead to the collapse of Mycenaeans.
  • 104

    China Economic

    1000s B.C The Shang surrounded their cities with massive earthen walls for protection. It likely took 10,000 men more than 12 years to build such a structure.
  • 104

    China Social

    1000s B.C The family was central to Chinese society. The most important virtue was respect for one’s parents. The elder men in the family controlled the family’s property and made important decisions.
  • 104

    China Cultural

    1000s B.C Blast furnaces that produced cast iron were developed. People started making weapons.
  • 104

    China Political

    Around 1027 B.C., a people called the Zhou overthrew the Shang and established their own dynasty. The Zhou brought new ideas to the chinese government.
  • 104

    China Political

    1027 B.C. To govern China, control over different regions were given to members of the royal family and other trusted nobles. This established a system called feudalism. Feudalism is a political system in which nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king.
  • 104

    China Economic

    1026 B.C Roads and canals were built to stimulate trade and agriculture. Coined money was introduced, which further improved trade.
  • 105

    Greece Cultural

    776 B.C. most famous sports festival was the Olympic games, held every four years. The ancient Greeks believed that strong healthy citizens helped strengthen the city-state. This impacted the citizens because they competed for physical health and those games are still held today.
  • 105

    Greece Political

    By 750 B.C., the city-state, or polis, was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece.This caused the population to increase and citizens now participated in a government called a monarchy or aristocracy.
  • 105

    Greece Cultural

    between 750 and 700 B.C. The Trojan War forms the backdrop for one of Homer’s great epic poems, the Iliad. This was a very well known story in Greece that informed people of the war.
  • 105

    Rome Social

    753 B.C rome was founded. This is important because then the Roman Empire started and
    brought many new thing to society.
  • 106

    Greece Social

    In 621 B.C., Draco developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. This made it easier for citizens to follow a set of laws.
  • 107

    Greece Social

    594 B.C democratic reforms were introduced by Solon. These were that no citizen should own another citizen. Solon outlawed debt slavery. He organized all Athenian citizens into four social according to wealth. This lead to other reforms.
  • 107

    Indus Valley Cultral

    563-486 B.C. - Buddha lives and becomes one of the most powerful, religious figures. He created one of the most popular religions.
  • 107

    Indus Valley Cultural

    500 B.C.- Different religions were starting to be discovered. One of the biggest ones was Jainism, which was the most major early religion in the Indus Valley.
  • 107

    Rome Political

    509 B.C Rome became a republic. They elected officials to run the city. This made participating easier for the citizens.
  • 108

    Rome Social

    494 B.C Plebeians challenged patricians. Patricians expanded rights. All laws were written down. Law of the 12 tables were established. This was important because the plebeians got a little more equality in the law system.
  • 108

    China Economic

    476 BC - 221 BC The Great Wall of China arose on the backs of hundreds of thousands of peasants. The wall builders worked neither for wages nor for love of empire. They faced a terrible choice: work on the wall or die. Many of the laborers worked on the wall and died anyway, victims of the crushing labor or the harsh winter weather.
  • 109

    Egypt Economic

    300 B.C Alexandria became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. This was important because many customs and items were shared with many others.
  • 109

    Egypt Economic

    300 B.C Broad avenues lined with statues of Greek gods divided the city into blocks. Rulers built magnificent royal palaces overlooking the harbor. This was a great attraction for the city.
  • 110

    Indus Vally Economic

    200-100 B.C. - Trade routes were set up between Mediterranean and South India. Trade helped India prosper.
  • 111

    Rome Political

    265 B.C Romans defeated the Etruscans and Greeks in southern Italy. This gave Rome more power.
  • 111

    Greece Interactions

    225 B.C Colossus of Rhodes, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, this huge sculpture was toppled by an earthquake. The bronze was later sold.
  • 111

    Rome Interactions

    218 B.C Carthaginian Hannibal led a well trained army. Used elephants to cross the Pyrenees and Alps. This was a quick transportation and the elephants made it easier to cross those barriers.
  • 111

    Rome Political

    202 B.C Scipio routed Hannibal’s forces. Ended the 2nd punic wars. This later lead to the third punic wars even though they thought they were done fighting.
  • 112

    Rome Social

    133 B.C Tiberius noticed poverty for the first time. Because of this he entered politics.
  • 112

    Rome Interactions

    100 B.C- 500 A.D Romans controlled majority of the Mediterranean. This was important because it made trade easier for them.
  • 113

    Rome CUltural

    63 B.C Romans conquered Judea. The Jews were not willing to give up their religion for polytheism. This caused many problems with the Jews.
  • 113

    Rome Interactions

    Beginning of C.E Mediterranean basin was largely deforested. Mining started.
  • 130

    Rome Cultural

    130 All Jews were banned from Jerusalem because of a revolt. This impacted their society because the also fought for rights.
  • 180

    Rome Economic

    180 Farmers started to replace slaves in farming. This allowed farmers to live on the property if he could pay the owner with the crops he grew. This ended a little slavery.
  • 180

    Rome Economic

    180 Roman empire manufacturing increased. This lead to the selling of more pottery, there were more shops, and the selling of glassware. This allowed the Romans to make more money.
  • 180

    Rome Economic

    180 Many trade opportunities arose for Italy, Alexandria, and Asia. This was important because ideas spread.
  • 300

    Rome Cultural

    300 Christianity through Rome hastened by the conversion of the emperor Constantine to the religion. This was important because this caused the religion to spread rapidly through Rome because he made it legal to practice it.