Period: 504 to 604
Gregory the GreatWe call Gregorian chant in honour of Gregory the Great
Period: 600 to 800
Gregorian chantRoman Catholic Church compiled liturgical plainsongs
Monophonic texture,without instrumental accompaniment.
Modal scales and in free time.
Text in Latin with a religious theme.
Its performed by male voices and alternates between a soloist and the choir
Write it down
First symbols were called neumes and they were written on top of teh words to show the changes of pitch.
Neumatic notational system was used,on a four-line stave https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfwuZaf6WXw
Liturgical polyphonyA second voice was added to plainsong and polyphony was born.
The main medieval liturgical polyphonic forms were:
Organum:earliest form.The main voice was a Gregorian melody and a second,parallel voice was added.
Discantus:a new voice was added to the Gregorian melody that moved in contrary motion.
Conductus:new composition for two to four voices.Same text and same rhythm in the syllabic style.
Secular musicMain characteristics:
Monophonic texture,with instrumental accompaniment
Modal scales and rhythmic modes
Designed for fun or entertainment
Written on the local language
Performed by male and female voices Musicians who playued secular music were called minstrels:
Performed in village or city squares and enternained the common people.
Court minstrels were part of the court in palaces.
Period: 992 to 1050
Guido d´ArezzoWas a teacher in the cathedral school in Arezzo,Italy.As well as inventing the Guidonian hand, he created the four-line stave and gave the notes the names that we still use today
Period: 1098 to 1179
Hildegard von BingenGerman nun,writer,scientist and composer.From an early age,she experienced mystic visions and she said that these visions were accompanied by music.She composed a total 78 liturgical pieces of music for her congregation.
Musical notationMusical notation was also envolving,because a more precise system was needed.Mensural notation started to be use in the 13 th century.this included the first symbols related to metre and assigned different note values depemding on the duration of the note
Period: 1400 to 1500
Secular vocal musicMadrigal:in Italy
songs in england
chanson in french
villancico,romance and ensalada in spain
Period: 1400 to 1500
Instrumental musicInstruments prohibited
Polyphonic instruments were more popular
Compositions based on vocal music
Compositions with an improvisational feel
Period: 1483 to 1546
Martin lutherProtestan reformation in his country.
He created a repertorie of simplest melodies in the vernacular
Period: 1544 to
Maddalena CasulanaFirst woman to publish her compositions in the history of western music
Period: 1548 to
Tomás luis de VictoriaSpanish composer
Born in Avila
At 19 he travelled to Rome to complete his musical training.
Baroque musicstart-appereance of opera
end-death of bach
Baroque dance and balletSome Renaissance dances remained,new ones appeared
Chaconne appeared in Spain
Court ballet appeared in France
Instrumental musicBecame important in the baroque period
Thanks to technical developments in instruments
First virtuosos appeared Instruments
A libretto:contains the text of an opera Seria:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0evKSG3-SI Buffa:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mqefo_41mvE Parts of opera
Religious vocal music
Instrumental musicNew instruments appear
Most used was the sonata:https://www.google.com/search?q=sonata+form&safe=strict&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR1dearMPgAhWjD2MBHVlNAPkQ_AUIDigB&biw=1366&bih=625#imgrc=ikmBbJQ-avL06M:
Names of ensemble
Concerto:soloist and the orchestra
Instrumental music (orchestra)The considerable increase in the number of musicians meant that an orchestra conductor was needed,to cordinate evrybodies work performance
Cocert halls were built to suit the new orchestra ensemble
Vocal musicThe reform of the opera
Plots were a reflection of the lives of the audience
The music reflect the characters
The chorus became more relevant
The orchestra became more important Types
Religious vocal music:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zi8vJ_lMxQI
Music in Classical periodComposers
Ludwig van Beethoven:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFeRTANr_sw&t=16s
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8N7mFboGnc&t=16s
Franz Joseph Haydn:https://www.youtube.catch?v=55XgmvOIGCMom/w Characteristics
Its balanced, clear and bright
It aimed to find a musical language
It used musical forms with well-defined structures
It emphasied the melody
The use of a simple harmony
The use of melody-dominated homophony
Classical period in Spain
Music in the romantic periodCharacteristics:
Aiming for virtuosity
Small musical forms
Aiming for unity in the piece of music
Symphonic music (instrumental music)
Vocal music (opera)Italy:
Romantic dance and ballet
20 th century musicPursuing novelty,experimentation,originality
Searching for a new musical language
Exploring different ways of representing music
Using new computer and instrumental resources
impressionismMusical atmospheres inspired by nature or unusual things
Scales tht evoked oriental music
Imprecise melodic lines and a free,irregular rhythm
Timbres of different instruments overlapping,forming a collage
ExpressionismIt used a very strong rhythm
compositions designed for small chamber ensembles
It includes some dissonances that create constant tension
It used atonality and twelve tone thechnique
In some compositions the melodic line was lost in favour of a recitative singing called Sprechgesang
neoclassicismIt aimed for a return to Classical ashtethics,but with harmonic dissonances and irregular rhythm
Musique concreteUsed sounds from their surroundings and modified with the latest technology
Minimal musicCreate simple and direct music
Brought back tonality and it used simple structures ,clear textures and melodies and short constantly musical phrases
Aleatoric musicWas based on chance and the ability of the composert to improvise
Electronic and electrocaoustic musicelectronic:only used sounds generated electronically by synthesiser
electrocaoustic:it combine musique concrete with sounds make electronically