History of Music

  • Period: 504 to 604

    Pope Gregory the Great

    We called Gregorian Chant in honor of Pope Gregory the Great
  • Period: 600 to 800

    Gregorian chant

    The Roman Catholic Church copiled its liturgical plainsongs.

    Main characteristics of Gregooriant Chant: -It has a monophonic texture, without instrumental accompaniment -It uses modal scales and is in free time to help to comunicate the meaning of the text. -The text is in Latin with a religious theme. -It´s performed by male voices and alternates between a soloist and the choir, or between two choirs (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_RXBlknjWc)
  • Period: 600 to 800

    Styles of Gregorian Chant

    Syllabic, one note per syllable. Neumatic, a small group of notes each syllable. Melismatic, a lot of notes per syllable.
  • 800

    First rules of musical notation

    First rules of musical notation
    The first symbols were called NEUMES and they were written on the top of the words to show the changes of the pitch.
    A neumatic notational system was used, on a four-line stave
  • 800

    Instrumental Music

    Instrumental Music
    Chordophones, aeroophones, membranophones and idiophones
  • Period: 800 to 1500

    Liturgical polyphony

    In the 9th century, a second voice was added to plaisong and polyphony was born. Musical notation envolved a more precise system to write the rhythmic richness of the more complex polyphony. MUENSURAL NOTATION include the first symbols related to metre and assigned different note values depending on the duration of the note.
  • Period: 800 to 1500

    Medieval Liturgical Polyphony forms

    ORGANUM, earliest form. The main voice was Gregorian Chant melody and a second voice was added.
    DICANTUS, new voice was added that moved in contrary motion.
    CONDUCTUS, new composition for two or more voices. Same rhythm and syllabic style.
  • Period: 800 to

    Secular vocal music

    -The composer is known.
    -Monophonic texture, with instrumental accompanimet
    -Composed with modal scales and rhythmic modes.
    -Composed to entertain, about secular or religiouss topics and in the vernacular
    -Performed by misntrels in public spaces and in palaces.
  • Period: 992 to 1050

    Guido d'Arezzo

    He was a teacher in the cathedral school in Arezzo. Guido gaves the name "Ut" to the note that we now call Do (the name changed in the 18th century)
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen

    She was a German nun, writer, scientist and composer. Hildegard composed a total of 78 liturgical pieces.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8gK0_PgIgY)
  • 1100

    Carmina Burana

    Famous collection of secular vocal music and the manuscript date back to the 12th and 13th centuries.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GXFSK0ogeg4)
  • 1200

    Goliards

    Goliards
    The goliards were a group of clergy, generally young, who wrote satirical Latin poetry in the 12th and 13th centuries of the Middle Ages.
  • 1200

    Cantigas de Santa María

    There were written in songbooks from the reing of the King Alfonso X the Wise.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WxfhCdIZQX8)
  • 1453

    Renaissance textures

    Renaissance music developed new textures for several parts, combining them in different ways.
    -Imitative counterpoint, several melodic lines that start at different times.
    -Homorhythmic homophony, several similar melodic lines that move simultaneously.
    -Melody-dominated homophonic, a main melodic line that can be identified with harmonic accompainment. Musical textures
    Imitative counterpoint
  • 1453

    Religious vocal music

    Religious vocal music
    Three main forms:
    -Motet, this form became the most important, religious and included more parts. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ro2JTnfmjzA)
    -Mass, long composition with liturgical text. In Latin. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJtRXzyWul8)
    -Chorale, the most common form in the Protestant liturgy based on pre-existing melodies sung in the vernacular (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo8_-Uo4Is8)
  • 1453

    Secular vocal music (RENAISSANCE)

    Secular vocal music (RENAISSANCE)
    Italy; madrigal was the dominant form. (https://www.historyandheadlines.com/top-10-madrigal-composers-renaissance-era/)
    England; songs ,1 voice+instrumental accompainment
    France; chanson ,several voices+instrumental accompainment (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ze0a3b1j02w)
    Spain; romance, villancico and ensalada
  • 1453

    Instrumental forms RENAISSANCE

    Instrumental forms RENAISSANCE
    -Compositions based on vocal music, tiento
    -Compositions with an improvisational feel, toccata
    -Variations, diferencias
  • Period: 1453 to

    The Modern period and the Renaissance

    The modern period started with the fall of the Bizantine Empire in1453 and ended with the French Revolution in 1789.
    The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement that started in Italy and spread all over Europe during the 15th and 16th. History of ideas. THE RENAISSANCE
  • Francescca Caccini

    Francescca Caccini
    1587-1640
    She was an important musician born in Florence.
    As well as having a great voice, Francesca played the harp, the lute, and the harpsichord.
    'La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina'
  • Opera

    Opera
    What's opera?
    Types:
    -Opera Buffa, is a comic opera
    -Opera Seria, is a dramatic opera
    Parts of the opera:
    -Instrumental parts; Overture, Interlude
    -Vocal and instrumental parts; Recitative,Aria, Chorus
  • Instrumental Forms

    Instrumental Forms
  • Religious vocal music BARROQUE

    Religious vocal music BARROQUE
    In this type of music, polycholarism became very important
    Three different types:
    -Cantata, is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.
    -Oratorio, is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
    -Passion, musical setting of the suffering and Crucifixion of Christ, based either on biblical texts.
  • Barroque dance and BALLET

    Barroque dance and BALLET
    Baroque dance evolved within the framework of court ballet, musical tragedy or opera-ballet. Call in its time the belle dance.
    In France, COURT BALLET appeared.
  • Period: to

    The Baroque Period

    Characteristics:
    -It aimed to arouse emotions and make performances spectacular
    -It used contrasting elements and overelaborate melodies
    -It was based on the diatonic scales.
    -It had an insistent mechanical rhythm
    -The predominant texture was melody-dominated homophony Baroque music
  • Period: to

    The Baroque Orchestra

  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Antonio Vivaldi
    1678-1741
    He was a composer and a priest from Venice. Vivaldi was the violin teacher at the conservatory of the Orphanage of Pietà and he wrote operas.
    The Four Seasons/Quattro Stagioni
  • Johhan Sebastian Bach

    Johhan Sebastian Bach
    1685-1750
    Bach was the most famous of a large family of musicians. He was an excellent organist, harpsichord and conductor.
    Music of Johan Sebastian Bach
  • Instrumental Forms CLASSICISM

    Instrumental Forms CLASSICISM
  • Musical Forms

    Musical Forms
    Depending on the ensemble:
    -Sonata
    -Trio, quartet...
    -Symphony
    -Concerto
  • Orchestra Classicism

    Orchestra Classicism
    It incorporated the clarinet, the French horn and the piano.
    ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR, What does the conductor do?
    Concert halls were built.
  • Opera in Classicism

    Opera in Classicism
    Opera:
    -BUFFA; It is an opera with a comic theme. It was developed in Naples in the first half of the 18th century. Use as the main character the shape of the bean.
    -SERIA; is a Spanish musical term that refers to the noble and "serious" style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe approximately between the years 1720 and 1770.
  • Classical Dance

    Classical Dance
  • Period: to

    Classical Period

    Characteristics of Classical period:
    -Balance, clear and bright
    -Well-defined structures
    -Melody
    -Simple harmony
    -Melody dominated homophony or Bass Alberti
    Music in the Classical Period
  • Period: to

    Classical period in Spain

  • Franz Joseph Haydn

    Franz Joseph Haydn
    1732-1809
    He was an Austrian composer. He is known as the "father of the symphony" and the "father of the string quartet"
    Best music of Haydn
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    1756-1791
    He was a composer and pianist, teacher of Classicism, considered one of the most influential and prominent musicians in history.
    Music of Mozart
  • Ludwig van Beethoven

    Ludwig van Beethoven
    1770-1827
    He was a composer, conductor and German pianist. His musical legacy covers, chronologically, from Classicism to the beginnings of Romanticism.
    Sinfonía nº 3
  • Compositions for Piano

    Compositions for Piano
    -Short pieces for solo piano
    -Chamber music
    -Longer works
  • Musical Nationalism Romantic Period

    Musical Nationalism Romantic Period
    -Russia, Pyotr Ilyich and The Five
    -Hungary, Béla Bartók. Ethnomusicology
    -Spain, Isaac Albéniz and Enrique Granados
  • Period: to

    Romantic Period

    -Tonal scales, tonality, and modality
    -Freedom
    -Virtuosity
    -Melody and emotions
    -Vocabulary, dynamics, and tempo
    -Textures and harmonies
    -Unity in the piece
    Classical Music from the Romantic Period
  • Period: to

    Vocal Music Romantic Period

    -An OPERA is a form of theatre.
    ·Italy, bel canto and verismo
    ·France, grand opéra and operetta
    ·Germany, leitmotiv
    -ZARZUELA is a Spanish traditional form of musical comedy.
    ·Zarzuela grande
    .Género chico
    -LIED
  • Romantic dance and ballet

    Romantic dance and ballet
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJBAbKipjnQ)
    Ballet is a musical composition, generally of orchestral nature, destined to be staged by means of this dance.
    -La Sylphide, 1832.
    -Coppélia,1815
    -The Nutcraker,1892
    -Swan Lake, 1875
  • Period: to

    Erik Satie

  • Instruments of the 20th-century

    Electrophones
    -Theremin, is a monophonic instrument
    -Ondes Martenot, is a monophonic instrument
    -Synthesiser, is a polyphonic instrument
    -Sampler, is a polyphonic instrument
    Idiophones
    -Vibraphone, is a pitched idiophone
  • First movements

    First movements
    [First half of the 20th-century movements:
    Impressionism
    -Claude Debussy Expresionism
    -Alban Berg Atonaity and twelve-tone technique
    -Arnold Schonberg Neoclassicim
    -Igor Stravinski
  • Period: to

    The 20th-Century

    The 20th-entury was a revolutionary part of the music in which it appeared lots of movements. Some general characteristics were:
    -Novelty, experimentation and originality
    -New musical lenguage
    -Different ways of representing music
    -New computerr resources Music from the early 1900's
  • Generación del 27

    Generación del 27
    Joaquín Rodrigo, music
    Federico Mompou, music
  • Period: to

    Sofia Gubaidulina

  • Second Movements

    Second Movements
    After the 2nd World War, artist continued creating new movements:
    Aleatoric music
    -John Cage Music concrète
    -Pierre Boulez Electronic music
    -Karlheinz Stockhausen Electroacustic music
    -Karlheinz Stockhausen Minimal music
    -Steve Reich
  • Generación del 51

    Generación del 51
    Composers of the "Generación del 51":
    Luis de Pablo
    Critóbal Halffter