Carls iv

Spain in the XIX century

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    Carlos IV

    The reign of Charles IV of Spain (1788–1808) was influenced by the impact on Spain of the French Revolution of July 1789 and its subsequent development, especially after Napoleon Bonaparte took power in 1799.
  • Rosellon war

    Rosellon war
    Fearing the contagion of liberal ideas, the king of Spain joined the international coalition against France. However, Spanish troops were defeated by the army of the French Convention.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Treaty of St. Ildefonso of 1796 was a military alliance signed between Spain and France in 1796, with France embarking on the wars of its revolutionary stage. Under the terms of the agreement, both States agreed to maintain a joint military policy against Britain, who at that time threatened the Spanish fleet on their trips to America.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Was signed between the respective plenipotentiary representatives of Manuel Godoy, valid of the King of Spain Charles IV of Bourbon, and Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France. It allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, an ally of the British.
  • Popular resistance

    Popular resistance
    Squads of patriots were formed to harass the french. The army, supported by the volunteers, managed to stop the French advance towards the South at the Battle of Bailén.
  • Mutiny of Aranjuez

    Mutiny of Aranjuez
    The presence of French troops on Spanish territory and the intrigues of Fernando, the eldest son of Charles IV, against his father caused the mutiny of Aranjuex. The result was the resignation of Godoy and the abdication of the King in his son.
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    Independence war

    The Independence War (1807–1814) was the military conflict fought by Spain and Portugal, assisted by the United Kingdom, against the invading and occupying forces of France for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • The Abdications of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne
    They are the succesive resignations of the kings Carlos IV and his son Fernando VII from the throne of Spain in favour of Napoleon Bonaparte. He ceded such rights to his brother Jose Bonaparte. who reigned under the name of Jose I. He launched certain reforms with the support of some spanish liberals, the frenchified.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    It was fought during the Spanish War of Independence and supposed the first open field defeat in the history of the Napoleonic army. It took place on July 19, 1808, next to the city of Bailén. He faced a French army of about 21,000 soldiers under the command of General Dupont with an Spanish army of 27,000 soldiers under General Teodoro Reding, although the general in chief of the so-called Army of Andalusia was General Castaños.
  • Parliament of Cádiz

    Parliament of Cádiz
    It was created with the intention with the intention of coordinating the efforts of the differents Gaskets. The central Gasket convocated a court meeting in Cádiz with the purpose of write a Constitution.
  • Anglo-Spanish victories

    Anglo-Spanish victories
    The Britanic Army commanded by Marshal Wellington was introduced from Portugal to help the Spanish troops, defeating the French in Los Arapiles.
    Napoleón had to recognized his defeat and through the Treat of Valençay (diciembre de 1813), he retired his troops from Spain and he released the kings in Bayona.
  • Constitution of 1812

    Constitution of 1812
    Also known as La Pepa, was promulgated by the Spanish General Courts in Cádiz. Officially it was active for only two years, after its promulgation until its repeal in Valencia on May 4, 1814, after the return to Spain of Fernando VII.
    It established the national sovereignty, the division of powers, universal suffrage and recognize individual freedoms.
  • Treat of Valençay

    Treat of Valençay
    Napoleon offered peace and recognized Ferdinand VII as King of Spain, as a result of the defeats suffered in the War of Independence and, especially, of the progressive deterioration of the French army and the morale of the soldiers due to the continuous harassment of the Spanish and English troops and the Spanish guerrillas. The treaty did not enter into force in Spain because the Cortes and the Regency in Madrid did not accept it.
  • Independence of Latin America

    Independence of Latin America
    The uprising was led by the Creole bourgeoisie who saw Spain as an obstacle to development in the American economy.
    The emancipatory movement was led by the military and liberals, Simón Bolívar Antonio José de Sucre and José de San Martín.
    They occurred between 1808-1814 and between 1816-1826
  • Sexenio absolutista

    Sexenio absolutista
    After regaining the throne with the support of the absolutists, Fernando VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and annulled the reformist work of the Cortes of Cádiz. The country returned to the situation before the War of Independence.
  • Annulment of the Constitution

    Annulment of the Constitution
    On May 4, 1814, the recently restored King Ferdinand VII decreed the dissolution of the Cortes, the repeal of the Constitution and the arrest of the Liberal deputies.
    Fernando VII opposes the decrees and the constitution of the Cortes of Cádiz because they signify the passage from an absolutist state to a constitutional one.
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    Ferdinand VII

    He reigned over the Spanish Kingdom in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death in 1833.
  • Trienio liberal

    Trienio liberal
    The pronouncement of Colonel Rafael del Riego in Cabezas de San Juan found enough support to succeed and the king was forced to accept the Constitution of 1812. To protect the Constitution and face the absolutist opposition, the National Militia was organized.
    Fernando VII was always contrary to the new situation and asked the absolute monarchs of Europe for help to defeat the liberals.
  • 100.00 Sons of St. Louis

    100.00 Sons of St. Louis
    The One Hundred Thousand Sons of San Luis were a French contingent with Spanish volunteers who fought in Spain in 1823 in defense of the Bourbon absolutism, the Old Regime, which Fernando VII of Spain wanted to impose, ending the Realist War and the Liberal Triennium.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    It was approved by Ferdinand VII of Spain on March 29, 1830, who came to promulgate the Pragmatic of 1789 approved by the Cortes of that year at the request of King Carlos IV and for foreign policy reasons, did not enter into vigor. The Pragmatic of 1789 annulled the Decree of May 10, 1713 that, except in very extreme cases, made it impossible for women to access the Throne, which is why it is commonly called "Salic Law".
  • Pronunciamiento led by Torrijos

    Pronunciamiento led by Torrijos
    Was a pronouncement headed by José María Torrijos that took place in 1831 in Spain at the end of the reign of Fernando VII and whose objective was to put an end to absolutism and restore the Constitution of 1812. Torrijos landed on the coast of Malaga but they fell into the trap set for them by the absolutist authorities and were arrested. Nine days later, on December 11, Torrijos and 48 of his surviving companions were shot on the beach of San Andrés de Málaga.
  • Maria Cristina´s regency

    Maria Cristina´s regency
    The regency of María Cristina de Borbón constitutes the first period of the minority of age of Isabel II of Spain during which her mother María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias assumes the functions corresponding to the Crown (1833-1840) and has to face to the First Carlist War unleashed by the supporters of Carlos María Isidro.
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    Isabella II

    She was queen of Spain between 1833 and 1868 and during her reign the Constitution of 1845 was proclaimed.
  • First Carlist war

    First Carlist war
    The first Carlist war was a civil war that was developed in Spain between 1833 and 1840. This faced the Carlist, supporters of the Infante Carlos María Isidro de Borbón and an absolutist regime, and the Elizabethans or Cristinos, defenders of Isabel II and the regent María Cristina de Borbón, whose government was originally a moderate absolutist and eventually became a liberal to gain popular support.
  • Espartero´s regency

    Espartero´s regency
    The regency of Espartero was the last period of the minority of age of Isabel II of Spain, so called because General Baldomero Espartero after the triumph of the "revolution of 1840" that put an end to the regency of María Cristina de Borbón, mother of the future Queen Elizabeth II, who was then nine years old, assumed the regency in her place.
  • Constitution

    The Spanish Constitution of 1845 was the supreme norm during the effective reign of Isabel II, which replaced the Constitution of 1837 the supreme norm during her minority. The Constitution of 1845 was in force until the proclamation of the Spanish Constitution of 1869.
  • Second Carlist War

    Second Carlist War
    CARLOS MARÍA ISIDRO's idea is for his son to marry ISABEL II and thus end the problem between Carlists and Elizabethans. The failure of this attempt favors the outbreak, in September 1846, of the Second Carlist War (1846-1849) carried out in Aragon, Burgos, Toledo, Navarra, Guipúzcoa and, fundamentally, in Catalonia, where it will be known as «Guerra dels Matiners ».
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    In September 1868, an insurrection that would go down in history as "the Glorious Revolution" dethroned the Spanish Queen Elizabeth II. The military who led the rebellion wielded political reasons and wishes for the renewal of the State, but in the background there was a very complicated economic situation, the risk of a popular revolt.
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    Sexenio democrático

    It is known as Sexenio Democrático or Sexenio Revolucionario to the period of contemporary history of Spain since the triumph of the revolution from September 1868 until the pronouncement of December 1874, which marked the beginning of the stage known as Bourbon Restoration.
  • First cuban war

    First cuban war
    It was the first of the three wars of independence that occurred in Cuba in the second half of the nineteenth century with the aim of achieving the independence of the colony over the Spanish metropolis. The war began with the Grito de Yara, on the night of October 9-10, 1868.
  • Constitution

    The Spanish Constitution of 1869 was the Constitution approved under the Provisional Government of 1868-1871, after the triumph of the Revolution of 1868 that ended the reign of Isabel II. It was the Constitution that was in force during the reign of Amadeo I.
  • Monarchy of Amadeo de Saboya

    Monarchy of Amadeo de Saboya
    The reign of Amadeo I was the first attempt in the history of Spain to put into practice the form of government of the parliamentary monarchy ("popular monarchy" or "democratic monarchy", as it was called at the time), although it ended with a resounding failure since it only lasted two years.
  • Third Carlist War

    Third Carlist War
    The Third Carlist War took place in Spain between 1872 and 1876 between the supporters of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, a Carlist pretender by the name of Carlos VII, and the governments of Amadeo I, the I Republic and Alfonso XII.
  • First Spanish Republic

    First Spanish Republic
    The Cortes proclaimed the Republic as a form of government through a vote -258 votes in favor and 32 against- before the decomposition of the monarchy of Elizabeth II (1833-1868) and the ineffective attempt of the monarchy Amadeo of Savoy (1870-1873). In this context, the Republic emerges as an unprecedented formula to apply the postulates of the Revolution of 1868.
  • Cantonal Revolution

    Cantonal Revolution
    The Cantonal Rebellion (or Cantonal Revolution) was an insurrection that took place during the First Spanish Republic between July 1873 and January 1874. Its protagonists were the "intransigent" federal republicans, who wanted to immediately establish the Federal Republic from the bottom up without waiting for the Constituent Courts to prepare and approve the new Federal Constitution.
  • Political manipulation

    Political manipulation
    This new political system began after the coup d'état of Arsenio Martínez Campos (12-29-74) in Sagunto and involved, not only the reestablishment of the Bourbon monarchy but also the restoration of doctrinaire liberalism, a moderate liberalism that allowed power to politician was in the hands of the conservative bourgeoisie.
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    The Bourbon restoration

    Is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
  • Constitutional monarchy (the Bourbon restoration)

    Constitutional monarchy (the Bourbon restoration)
    The Sandhurst Manifesto was made public, signed by Prince Alfonso de Borbón, who would soon become King Alfonso XII. It is so named because the young Bourbon was studying at the British military academy of Sandhurst, when he was in exile, after the march of the royal family as a result of the Revolution of 1868, and the course of the so-called Democratic Sexennium.
  • Constitution 1876

    Constitution 1876
    A commitment was obtained to preserve order and freedom under the monarchy of Alfonso XII. From there came 10 members chaired by Alonso Martínez, who would write this text; later it was retouched by Cánovas. Later, elections for non-constituent Cortes (1875). They were elected by universal suffrage, although there was a large abstentionism. It was published in July 1876.