Contemporary history

Helena Franco López_G&H_4oC

By h2000
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Modern History started with the discovery of America by Colon in 1492 and ended with the French Revolution. It is the history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages, refering to the history since the Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, that took part mostly in England.
    -The first face on the $1 Bill wasn't George Washington.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    During the industrial revolution, the textile and iron industries were the dominant forces.
    In the textile industry, in the 18th century there was a large volume of import from indianas and hand-printed cotton fabric from India.
    A mechanisation process also took place and one of key events was the John Kay's flying shuttle.
    Additional material:
    -Educative video
  • Period: to

    Enclosure acts

    The British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in grain prices.
    It had consequences like the concentration of land ownership, improvement in farming techniques (rise of production) and the production aimed at the market (abolition of personal consumption). But, poor farmers had to sell their properties and they had two options: become labourers in exchange for a wage or move to the cities.
    Additional material:
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    First Industrial Revolution

    It interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain (mid-18th century).
    Some of the factors that triggered it were the increase in food production and population, new machinery, the railway and the creation of a large domestic market as well as the new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments.
    Additional material:
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    In 1769, it had many applications.
    For example, in the industrial machinery, it mechanisated the textile industry, and this led to a rise in the yield productivity and total production, having lower costs and sale prices. In transport, it lead to a large domestic market and faster transatlantic crossing. Moreover it benefited the agriculture, mines and mills.
    Additional material:
    -3D model
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential economics book on the market.
    Later on, he published "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" (1759) which was based in looking at human's nature and ethics.
    Additional material:
    -Adam Smith: An inquiry concerning the nature and causes of the wealth of nations
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom which used water power to speed up the weaving processes, was invented by Cartwright. In 1785 the inventor patented it.
    He also created a wool combing machine (1789) and a cordelier (1792). He also designed a steam engine that used alcohol instead of water.
    The ideas were licensed firstly by Grimshaw of Manchester who built a small steam-powered weaving factory in Manchester.
    Additional material:
    -Video of Edmund Cartwright
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    Contemporary History

    Contemporary History started with the French Revolution in 1789 and it continues in the present.
    Many horrible events happened in this period, such as World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945) and the discovery of the atomic bomb.
    -100 imposters claimed to be Marie Antoinette's dead son, because a Bourbon restoration was still a possibility.
    -President Abraham Lincoln is in the Wrestling Hall of Fame.
    -Napoleon was once attacked by a horde of bunnies.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    The Constituent Assembly, formed by the moderate bourgeoisie, negociated with the king and privileged classes to establish a parlimentary monarchy in France.
    In August 1789 they approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
    In September 1791 they approved the first French constitution which included the formation of a Legislative Assembly with new laws to implement liberalism.
    Additional material:
    -Video (12:09-16:38).
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a long and complex process with different phases and political groups.
    The phases were the Constitutional Monarchy (1789-1792), the Social Republic (1792-1794) and the Conservative Republic (1794-1799).
    Additional material:
    -Video of the causes of the French Revolution from TED-Ed (00:00-4:15).
    -Funny engraving of the French Revolution.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General meeting was convened due to the problematic situation that France was suffering.
    This assembly was divided in three different estates and it was just an advisory body with no power.
    During these meetings, the Third Estate was expelled from the assembly, because they demanded a vote per representative, rather than a vote per estate.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (23:03-25:47)
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On the 20th of June 1789, Louis XVI closed the door of the Estates-General meeting, trying to expell the Third Estate and their supporters of the assembly. But they didn't give up and went to the Tennis Court Oath (Jeu de Paume) in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France and promised to draft the constitution.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (21:21-23:03).
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    The Assembly's proposals got more supporters in Paris, tensing the situation and causing the storming of the Bastille.
    In the summer of 1789, the revolution spread to the countryside, triggering the Great Fear against nobles.
    Eventually, in autumn of 1789, the king accepted the National Assembly and France became a constitutional monarchy.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (39:29-40:49).
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was established in the Constitutional Monarchy. Finally, it abolished the feudal values.
    Moreover,12 million women were not included and they had no rights. In this sense, Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen.
    Additional material:
    -Oldest predecessor: Cyrus Cylinder
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Women contributed to french revolution in many ways. Before the revolution, they requested social rights to the king in the Cahiers de doléances.
    During the Enlightenment, the salonnières also participated in cultural meetings.
    They also marched on Versailles to force the king to move to the Tuileries Palace.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" (1:09:29-1:15:05).
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The first French constitution drafted the new liberalism's laws: abolition of guilds, creation of the National Guard and, eventually, the end of the financial crisis by legal equality of social groups, the nobility had to pay taxes and the church's properties were confiscated and sold.
    In July 1790 appeared the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.
    Additional material:
    -Approval of the constitution
  • Period: to

    Social Republic

    The Social Republic was the second phase of the Revolution. It started as a consecuence of the military invassion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies) and the betrayal of the king when he tried to escape from Paris.
    All these facts, increased republican feelings among the sans-culottes and in 10th August 1792 they stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family, declaring a republic
    Additional material:
    -Video (1:45-17:46)
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    Girondin Convention

    In the Girondin Convention there was a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage (National Convention).
    They also executed the royal family and this led to a formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries. Therefore there were counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalists plots by privileged classes.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française"
    Arrest of the Girondins
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    During the Constitutional Monarchy, the sans-culottes stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family, declaring a republic in France. This led to the next phase of the revolution, the Social Republic as a consequence of the betrayal of the king and the military invasion of Austria and Prussia (absolute monarchies).
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (2:37:14-2:43:01).
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    In 1792 the War of the First Coalition began. Its causes were that Louis XVI had asked the other European powers to help him stop the revolution. Austria and Prussia (absolute monarchies) aceeded, but only because they were afraid about the revolution spreading in their reigns. This war lasted 5 years and it finished with the Treaty of Campo Formio.
    Additional material:
    -Europe's map
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    Jacobin Convention

    In June 1793 the Jacobins seized power starting the most extreme revolution phase, their constitution included popular sovereignty and social equality.
    The Comittee of Public Safety was the executive power.
    They also neutralized enemies by the mass levy and the imposition of the Reign of Terror. Moreover, they created social laws to satisfy the sans-culottes.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with subtitles (2:07:39-2:09:55).
  • Period: to

    Reign of terror

    It was imposed during the Jacobins' government. They also executed a lot of people under the Law of Suspects. Besides that, they wanted an equal method of execution for everyone, more human. The doctor Joseph Ignace Guillotin created the Guillotin.
    Additional material:
    -Other resources
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was executed during the Girondists government, because he was a symbol of the French Ancien Régime. Marie Antoinette was also executed the 16th of October 1793. Nowadays, we have some testemonies about this historical event, such as Louis-Sébastien Mercier's novel in which he talks about the kings' execution.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (39:48-45:17).
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    In July 1794 a coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government and Robespierre and their supporters were executed.
    Moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled the Jacobins' laws and drafted the Constitution (1795) which included the census suffrage. The executive power was granted to the Directory, but despite this, the system was unstable, due to the opposition of the aristocracy and common people.
    Additional material:
    -Video (17:47-21:58)
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    The 9th November of 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritatian rule. This event ended the French Revolution completely. It happened as a consecuence of the unstable situation in the Directory, due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people.
    Additional material:
    -National Geographic's Napoleon's photography album.
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    The Consulate

    The Consulate began with an autocratic and authoritatian government which had the following objectives: abolishment of the political instability of the Revolution, the consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles and the economic recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie.
    Additional material:
    -Video about the Napoleonic Wars (0:00-3:00)
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    In the context of crisis that France was suffering, Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire which was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie. It started Napoleon's authoritatian rule. This event also finished the French Revolution.
    This happened due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people to the Conservative Republic and the unstable situation with the Directory.
    Additional material:
    -History Channel's video:
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and the Consulate (1799-1804) began.
    This Consulate established the Constitution of 1800 which included a new political system. This system abolished the separation of powers and declaration of rights, there were also very limited liberties and the public opinion was censured. Eventually, the states were organized in departments, ruled by prefects.
    Additional material:
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the pope in 1804. He also defeated most European monarchies, due to the large army and new military tactics he developed.
    After Austerlitz, French troops seemed unstoppable.
    In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king. In 1811 Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith. France controlled most of Europe.
    Additional material:
    -Video about the Napoleonic Wars(3:00-8:10)
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    During the reign of Charles IV the system of the Ancien Régime started the crisis in Spain. In this context, the French Revolution began and Spain fought against liberal ideas. After the country's defeat, Manuel Godoy made an alliance with Napoleon against England. This treaty allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal.
    Additional material:
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    After the Mutiny of Aranjuez (1808), which it was a popular uprising against the French troops in Spain, Ferdinand VII became king, thanks to his intrigues. In the same year, several tries from Napoleon to persuade the Bourbons to abdicate in favour of his brother, Joseph I, were made.
    Additional material:
    -Joseph I
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    War of Independence

    This war was characterised by two opposed groups.
    On one hand, we have the majority of the population (patriots) that supported Ferdinand VII and composed their own administrations, fighting against the french invasion. The british troops also helped them.
    On the other hand, some liberals accepted Joseph I (afrancesados) and his Statue of Bayonne.
    Additional material:
    -Trailer about the Spanish War of Independence
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    During the Consulate, in 1808, Spain was invaded by Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte was crowned as the new king of Spain. Eventually, in 1812, there were revolts in Spain against him, because the spaniards were experiencing a strong nationalistic sentiment, just like other countries: Poland, Germany and Italy.
    Additional material:
    -Fun fact: Napoleon's brother was nicknamed "Pepe Botella" while he was king of Spain.
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    Luddite movement

    During the industrial revolution there were many new social movements.
    One of these workers' associations was The Luddite Movement. It started in England and they were the first ones to reivindicate their rights. However, they weren't pacific at all, because they were convinced that the machines were responsible of the low wages and the unemployment. Hence, they destructed them violently.
    Additional material:
    -Video: "The Luddites"
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    During the Spanish Liberal Revolution there were several weak constitutions acording to the political tendency in the power, hence the majority were short-lived until the moderate Constitution of 1876.
    The 1812 Constitution was called "A Pepa", because it was drafted the 19th march (día de San Xosé) by the Cádiz Cortes, establishing the separation of powers, the universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
    Additional material:
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The War of Independence, which had three different phases: Popular Resistance (1808), French Offensive (1808-1812) and the Anglo-Spanish Victories (1812-1814) was ended by the Treaty of Valençay that established Ferdinand VII as king and withdrew the French troops from Spain.
    Additional material:
    -Château de Valençay:
  • Manifesto de los Persas

    Manifesto de los Persas
    In 1814, Ferdinand VII had the support of the absolutists from the Cádiz Cortes, whom signed the Manifesto de los Persas, restablishing an absolutist monarchy. This repealed the Constitution 1812 and the reforms of the Cádiz Cortes. Liberals, wanted a constitutional monarchy and they were persecuted, exiled and executed.
    However, there were unsucessful liberal pronunciamientos.
    Additional material
    -The Return
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. Countries like Prussia, Russia, Britain and France also participated. The main objetives of this Congress were to stop the revolution and restore the absolute monarchy.
    To achieve their objetives, they had the following principles: legitimacy of absolutist monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and the right of intervetion.
    Additional material:
    -BBC's speech
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII returned to the political power after he had to exile due to the War of Independence (1814-1820). While he was gone, the patriors organised themselves (legitimate own government). Finally, he restored absolutism in Spain (Six years of Absolutism) with the Manifesto de los Persas.
    He didn't reign during the 1820-23 as a consecuence of the Liberal Triennium.
    Additional material:
    -Ferdinand VII's reign
  • Holy Alliance Treaty

    Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Holy Alliance Treaty was one of the consequences of the Congress of Vienna, Prussia, Austria and Russia, they would unite if there were any threat of liberal revolution.
    In Europe, the four great powers (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) reshaped the European map to their advantage and France returned to the 1792's borders, while they divided the Napoleonic Empire.
    Additional material:
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    In 1814, the Restoration of the Absolutismin Europe started, but they profoundly failed. They tried to restablish it through the Congress of Vienna, however, the 1830 and 1848 revolutions ended the restoration.
    Additional material:
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The fall of Napoleon began in 1808 with his failure of the Russia invassion.
    Later, in 1812, there were revolts in Spain against Joseph Bonaparte and, eventually, in 1815, the imperial army was defeated in Waterloo by Britain and Prussia.
    A little bit later, Napoleon abdicated and he was exiled to Saint Helena island.
    Additional material:
    -Dutch Belgian carabiniers at Waterloo.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    In 1820, one of the liberal pronunciamientos, led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla,was sucessful. This forced the king to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. They created the National Militia (armed liberal volunteers) to defend the liberal regime.
    Additional material:
    -Fact: Last year 200 years passed since this popular Pronunciamiento.
    -Portrait of Colonel Rafael del Riego:
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, however, greeks had to pay high taxes and they were excluded from state
    administration jobs. They were also dominated by people with different ideology.
    In 1822, greeks declared their independence.
    Later on, in 1827, greeks won thanks to France's and Britain's help.Finally, in 1830, the turks recognized Greece's independence.
    Additional material:
  • Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holly Alliance to send troops to defend the absolutism. In 1823, the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored the absolutism, leading to political and economical crisis in Spain.
    Additional material:
    -Portrait of the Duke.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    England forbade workers to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions..
    However, trade unions of workers from the same field appeared after the repeal of laws.
    Additional material:
    -Cotton Mill Girl: Behind Lewis Hine's Photograph & Child Labor Series
  • Stephenson’s steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s steam locomotive
    Stephenson's steam locomotive could carry more passengers and goods, needed less time and had a lower cost.
    Its name was Rocket and it was one of the first's steam locomotives with 0-2-2 wheels. It was constructed for the Rainhill's Tests, where it was declared the winner.
    Additional material:
    -Replication of the Rocket
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna wasn't respectful with the liberal principles or the nationalistic aspirations of the Europeans. As a consecuence, two main forces appeared: Nationalism and Liberalism.
    The movement began, and, meanwhile in France, they were sucessful, in Poland, were harshly supressed.
    Additional material:
    -Situation's map:
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    The Age of the revolutions

    In 1848, many uprisings were supressed, but democratic reforms and many nationalistic aspirations were consolidated in 2nd half of the 19th century, they also demonstrated the importance of workers as a political force, the democrats defended popular sovereignty by universal male suffrage and they extended the collective rights (assembly and association).
    Additional material:
    -Didactive map:
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna created the Kingdom of Netherlands which consisted of the Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) and Belgium (catholic and protestant).
    During 1830-1839 there was an armed conflict after Belgium's declaration of independence.
    Eventually, in 1839, they recognized Belgium's independence and the country became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
    Additional material:
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    Reign of Isabella II

    Isabella II tried to establish a liberal régime in Spain, because those ones that supported Maria Christina and Ferdinand VII's daughter were the liberals. After a civil war, liberals defeated Carlists and Spain had several phases: Regency of Maria Christina (1833-1840), Regency of Espartero (1840-1843), The Moderate Decade (1843-1854), The Progressive Biennium (1854-1856) and The System in Decline (1856-1868)
    Additional material
    The reign of Isabel II
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist war began in the Basque Country by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defeated by Espartero and the Liberal army.
    Finally, peace was signed during the Convention of Vergara.
    Additional material:
  • Zollverein

    In the process of the unification of Germany, in 1834, Prussia cretaed a customs union which was called Zollverein.
    Additional material:
    -Situation map:
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union was an attempt to form a national union confederation in the United Kingdom. Despite this, there were many attempts in the 1820s, culminating with the National Association for the Protection of Labour (1830).
    It united different types of workers to defend the right of association, improvements in wages and regulate child-labour.conditions
    Additional material:
    -A Short History of Trade Unions
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The progressive liberals led by Juan Álvarez de Mendizábal abolished the Ancien Régime and also introduced the 1837 Constitution, which included national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers into two chambers (Congress of Deputies and the Senate) and granted many rights and liberties.
    Additional material:
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Moderate Liberal Party led by General Narváez remained in power when the 1845 Constitution was introduced, which had a highly restricted suffrage and also civil liberties. Sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown. They reorganised the State and the municipal administration, being the Basque Country and Navarre the only ones that had their own statutory laws.
    Additional material:
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The Spring of Nations started in 1848, people lived under the rule of an empire or were fragmented into various states. The uprising of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism caused an independent sentiment from absolutist empires.
    Many uprisings were supressed, but from 1830 to 1848 revolutions ended the absolutism, they also represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
    Additional material:
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    French Second Republic

    During the Spring of Nations, in 1848, France experienced a popular uprising for the Second Republic. They also adopted some democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of death penalty and certain rights for workers.
    Additional material:
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Sheffield Industrial Museum has one of the three converters left in the world, adquired in 1978 as an example of the revolutionary steelmaking process which first took off in Sheffield. The Bessemer process (conversion of iron into steel) was invented and patented by Henry Bessemer in 1856.
    Additional material:
    -Manufacture of steel by Bessemer Process
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    Italian Unification Process

    Austria had annexed Lombardy-Venetia .
    In 1859, Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification.
    They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy.
    There was a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866 Austria finally left Venetia.
    Additional material:
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    Germany Unification Process

    Prussia and Austria were competing for power in the German Confederation.In 1834, Prussia created the Zollverein union. In 1848, the 1st freely elected Parliament of Germany offered the crown to the king of Prussia, who refused it. In 1861, new political figures in Prussia appeared, King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. In 1871, they proclaimed the Second German Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser
    Additional material:
  • First International

    First International
    In these revolutionary times, there was a proletarian internationalism, where marxists and anarchists advocated the need for world workers to unite in order to be independents.
    First International of International Workingmen’s
    The association was created thanks to Marx in 1864. However, ideological differences among marxists, anarchists and
    trade unions made it unworkable, spliting in 1876.
    Additional material:
    -Left History: The First International
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Karl Marx was a marxist and denounced the exploitation of workers and advocated a proletariat revolution to destroy capitalism. This revolution was divided in two phases that ended forming a communist society.
    Marxists also created socialist workers’ parties.
    This first volume of Das Kapital was published on 14 September 1867 in Hamburg. Marx described it as a continuation of his Zur Kritik de politischen Oekonomie (1859).
    Additional material:
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I
    Supported by progressives, unionists and democrats, Amadeo I introduced measures to help the economy and democratisation process. However, there were several problems like the death of General Prim (main supporter) and strong opposition (moderates, republicans and members of the Church). There were more complications like the Second Carlist War and the Cuban War which led to the abdication of the king.
    Additional material:
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Despite the fact that the major part of the Cortes were royalists, they voted to form a Republic. People were happy in this system and republicans wanted to make comprehensive social and economic reforms. In 1873 elections were won by federals and the new Consitution, which included federal principles and the legislative powers divided, was drafted. There were 4 presidents.
    Additional material:
    -First Republic in Spain
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    The Restoration occurred when General Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso XII as the king. During his reign, the canovist system (Antonio Cánovas del Castillo) emerged. The Constitution of 1876 was also introduced. This constitutional monarchy shared the power between the Cortes and the king (bicameral Cortes), giving broad powers to the king and declaring Spain as a confessional state.
    Additional material:
    -New system
  • Second International

    Second International
    Second International was founded by marxists in 1889 to
    coordinate the different socialist parties.
    It had its importance, because it established defining symbols of the labour movement, such as Anthem “The Internationale” and the International Workers’ Day (1st May)
    Additional material:
    -Left History: The Second International