CANDELA HISTORY OF MUSIC

  • 476

    START OF THE MIDDLE AGES

    START OF THE MIDDLE AGES
  • Period: 476 to 1492

    Instrumental music

    Most instruments were only used in secular music.
    -Chordophones:harp,psaltery,rebec...
    -Aerophones:shawm,cornamuse,portative organ...
    Mebranophones:square hand drum,tambor
    Idiophones:tejoletas,idiophones
    https://youtu.be/zuk6p95wzoA
  • Period: 504 to 604

    POPE GREGORY THE GREAT

    The first compiller of Gregorian chant, we call it like him in honour of him.
  • Period: 504 to 604

    Pope Gregory the Great

    Gregorian chant was called like this in honour of Pope Gregory The Great
  • Period: 600 to 800

    GREGORY CHANT

    The Roman Catholic Church compiled its liturgical plainsongs.
    Characterictics:
    - Monophonic texture
    - Uses modal scales and and is in free time
    - The text is in Latin, with a religious theme
    - Performed by male voices, alternates between a soloist and a choir, or between two choirs. It was necessary to write them down, so the first symbols were called neumes and and they were written in the tops of trhe words. A neumatic notational system was used on a four line-stave
  • Period: 600 to 800

    STYLES OF GREGORIAN CHANT

    Syllabic, one note per syllable. Neumatic, a small group of notes each syllable. Melismatic, a lot of notes per syllable.
  • Period: 600 to 800

    Gregorian chant

    MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
    -Monophonic texture
    -It uses modal scales and is in free time
    -It's in Latin with a religious theme
    -It's performed by male voices https://youtu.be/kK5AohCMX0U
  • 800

    FIRST RULES OF MUSICAL NOTATION

    FIRST RULES OF MUSICAL NOTATION
    The first symbols were called NEUMES and they were written on the top of the words to show the changes of the pitch.
    A neumatic notational system was used, on a four-line stave
  • Period: 800 to 1500

    LITURGICAL POLYPHONY

    A second voice was added to plainsong and the polyphony was born. Mensural notation included the first symbols related to metre ans asigned note values depending on the duration of the notes.
    Polyphonic forms:
    - Organum
    - Discaunt
    - Conductus
  • Period: 800 to

    SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC

    -The composer is known.
    -Monophonic texture, with instrumental accompanimet
    -Composed with modal scales and rhythmic modes.
    -Composed to entertain, about secular or religiouss topics and in the vernacular
    -Performed by misntrels in public spaces and in palaces
  • Period: 992 to 1050

    GUIDO D´AREZZO

    HE INVENTING THE GUIDONIAN HAND AND CREATED THE FOUR-LINE STAVE AND GAVE THDE NOTES THE NAMES THAT WE STILL USE TODAY.
  • Period: 992 to 1050

    Guido d'Arezzo

    He created the four-line stave and gave the names of the notes
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iR3bJKk1Xc
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    HILDEGARD VON BINGEN

    SHE COMPOSED A TOTAL OF 78 LITURGICAL PIECES OF MUSIC FOR HER CONGREGATION.
  • 1100

    CARMINA BURANA

    Carmina Burana is a famous collection of this type of composition and the manuscript dates back to the 12th and 13th centuries.
  • 1200

    GOLIARDS

    GOLIARDS
    Who were wandering clerics or mendicant students.
  • 1200

    CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARÍA

    CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARÍA
    There are written in songbooks, from the reign of King Alfonso X the Wise.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opEXfcsl2YQ
  • Period: 1400 to 1500

    THE MODERN PERIOD AND THE RENAISSANCE

    The modern period started with the fall of the Bizantine Empire in1453 and ended with the French Revolution in 1789.
    The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement that started in Italy and spread all over Europe during the 15th and 16th
  • 1453

    THE RENAISSANCE TEXTURES

    Renaissance music developed new textures :
    -Imitative counterpoint, several melodic lines that start at different times.
    -Homorhythmic homophony, several similar melodic lines that move simultaneously.
    -Melody-dominated homophonic, a main melodic line that can be identified with harmonic accompainment.
  • 1453

    RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC

    Three forms:
    -Motet, this form became the most important, religious and included more parts.
    -Mass, long composition with liturgical text. In Latin.
    -Chorale, the most common form in the Protestant liturgy based on pre-existing melodies sung in the vernacular
  • 1453

    THE INTRUMENTAL FORM RENAISSANCE

    -Compositions based on vocal music, tiento
    -Compositions with an improvisational feel, toccata
    -Variations, diferencias
  • 1453

    SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC FROM RENAISSANCE

    Italy; madrigal was the dominant form.
    England; songs ,1 voice+instrumental accompainment
    France; chanson ,several voices+instrumental accompainment
    Spain; romance, villancico and ensalada
  • Period: to

    BARROQUE MUSIC

    In this period intrumental music became just as important as vocal music and the first works written for the orchestra appeared.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SaCheA6Njc4&list=RDQMiJZWdHWO4Vk&start_radio=1
  • Period: to

    BASSO CONTINUO

    Both vocal and instrumental music was composed with the texture of melody dominated homophony.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BLr7Yt_ehw
  • Period: to

    THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA

    musicians came together to play in improvised groups
  • Period: to

    OPERA

    Secular vocal form that aimed to revive classical greek theatre. In Italy the opera seria or dramatic opera, written in italian and based on mythology or heroic stories, was especially popular. After this, came the opera buffa or comic opera, written in vernacular. These operas sometimes criticised the wealthier social classes.
  • Period: to

    BASSO CONTINUO

  • Period: to

    BAROQUE DANCE AND BALLET

    In the baroque period, dance in society was mainly courtly and refined, with precise, synchronised and choreographed movements that left no room for improvisation.
    Chaconne: appeared in spain with slow tempo and triple metre
    Ballet: appeared in france. This theatrical genre involved songs and dances performed by members of court dressed in luxurious costumes and masks.
  • Period: to

    INSTRUMENTAL FORMS

    Fugue: One movment, based on the same musical idea, performed by different parts that started at different times, giving imitative counterpoint
    Suite: series of various dances with different character, rhytms and tempos, written for solist or for orchestra.
    Sonata: consisted of four movments, alterning between fast and slows tempos. It was written for a max of three instruments and always in basso continuo
    Concerto: Grosso: performed bay a group of soloists, concertino, dialogue with orchestra.
  • Period: to

    RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC

    New dramatic forms:
    The Cantata was originally secular, but the church used it to spread its teaching, using texts that worshipped God. It consisted of a secuence of recitatives, arias and choruses. The Oratorio was similar to opera, but with a religious plot, a narrator and a large choir. The passion was similar to oratorio, but related exclusively to the passion and death of christ, and it was inspired by the gospels.
  • Period: to

    ANTONIO VIVALDI

    Vivaldi was a composer and priest from Venice.He was the violin teacher at the conservatory of the orphange of pieta and he wrote operas, oratorios and over 450 concertos.
  • Period: to

    The Classical period in Spain

    -Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga stands out for his early talent,which got him the nickname 'the Spanish Mozart'
    -Fernando Sor,was well known for his works for guitar
  • Period: to

    Vocal music

  • Period: to

    Instrumental music

    Woodwind instruments:
    https://youtu.be/YT_63UntRJE
    Brass instruments:
    https://youtu.be/KgxuzMilgC8
    Struck string instruments:
    https://youtu.be/x8N7mFboGnc
  • Period: to

    Instrumental forms

    Sonata:performed by one or two soloists
    Trio,quartet,quintet:composed for different chamber ensembles
    Symphony:performed by orchestra
    Concerto:performed by a soloist and the orchestra
  • Period: to

    Music in the Romantic period

  • Period: to

    Compositions for piano

    The piano developed technically and achieved a great expressive ability. Short pieces for solo piano: they were shorter than a sonata,simple and had a free musical structure
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2G6xMcUUbEA Chamber music:the piano was played in duets,trios,quartets and quintets
    https://youtu.be/-KoTfvaaiFc Longer works:it included concertos for piano and orchestra
  • 20 CENTURY MUSIC

    20 CENTURY MUSIC
  • INSTRUMENTS OF THE 20 CENURY

    INSTRUMENTS OF THE 20 CENURY
  • FIRST HALF OF 20 CENTURY

  • SECOND HALF OF THE 20 CENTURY

  • 20 CENTURY MUSIC IN SPAIN